This Review of the Education For All (EFA) programme in Nepal was commissioned by the Finnish Embassy on behalf of the group of supporting donors and undertaken by a team of consultants contracted by International Alert. The intention is to examine the EFA programme in relation to conflict and the current political crisis. Over a period of a month the team reviewed the relevant literature, visited the Mid-West and East, and engaged in consultation with stakeholders in Nepal. Using a methodology based on the Strategic Conflict Assessment of DFID, factors relating to conflict have been addressed in three main categories- social, economic and political exclusion. A fourth category relates to security factors, or the immediate effects of violence. In accordance with the Terms of Reference the team has focused more on the impact of education on conflict rather than the impact of conflict on education.The Review concludes that the design of the EFA programme is directly aimed at issues of exclusion and therefore is a highly appropriate response to conflict. Among the instruments available to donors it may be one of the most suitable at the current time. It reflects many of the DAC Principles for working in Fragile States. The Review recommends continued funding at current levels. There are, however, a number of serious deficiencies in implementation and donors could focus their efforts in relation to the EFA programme more sharply ‘on’ conflict.The EFA programme has been relatively successful in distributing scholarships to dalits but the amount actually received is commonly half what was intended and very small in relation to the overall cost of education. Scholarships are nowhere near enough to compensate for the loss of labour when children are sent to school. With government staff rarely if ever visiting schools, ostensibly because of the conflict, there is ample scope for patronage especially in the case of scholarships for ‘50 percent of poorer girls’. In practice, resources are focused on the District towns while interior areas are neglected.
|Number of pages||52|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - Mar 2006|
Bibliographical noteReference text: Aarmon, J et al (2004), Service delivery in difficult environments: the case of Nepal, DFID.
Africa Peace Forum et al (2004), Conflict-sensitive approaches to development, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding. A resource pack.
Aikman, S. & E. Unterhalther (2005) Beyond Access: Transforming Policy and Practice for Gender Equality in Education, Oxfam.
Amnesty International (2005), Nepal: Children caught in the conflict
Banerjee, U. D. (2005). Using Rights-Based Approaches to Mobilize for Social Justice: The Action Aid Nepal REFLECT Process. Lessons Learned from Rights-Based Approaches in the Asia-Pacific Region, Bangkok, Thailand, OHCHR Regional Office for Asia-Pacific, Bangkok.
Bayne, S. (2005) Background Paper and Analytical Framework for a conflict assessment of the Education For All programme in Nepal, International Alert.
Berdal, M and D Malone (eds) (2000) Greed and Grievance –economic agendas in civil wars, Lynne Rienner/IDRC.
Berry, C. et al (2004) Approaches to Improving the Delivery of Social Services in Difficult Environments, PRDE Working Paper 3.
Bhatta, Pramod (2005) Decentralization of Primary Education in Nepal, Studies in Neapli History and Society Vol 10 No 1 June 2005
Bista, D. M. (2004) Review of Research Literature on Girls' Education in Nepal, UNESCO Kathmandu Series of Monographs and Working Papers: No 3, Kathmandu.
Brown, T. (2004) Learning for a Future: Bhutanese Refugee Camps in Nepal, ID21.
Burchfield, S. (2004) Women's literacy programmes improve social and economic development in Nepal, ID21.
Bush, K & Saltarelli, D (2000) The two faces of education in ethnic conflict, UNICEF.
Caddell, M. (2005) "Listening to local voices? International targets and decentralised education planning in Nepal." International Journal of Educational Development 25(4): 456-469.
Centre for Investigative Journalism (2004) People in the ‘People’s War’, Himal Nepal
Davies, Lynn (2005) Evaluating the Link between Conflict and Education, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, Vol2 No 2 pp42-58.
DFID (1998) Nepal: Country Strategy Paper, DFID South East Asia.
DFID (2002) Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes, DFID UK.
DFID (2004) Nepal: Country Assistance Plan, DFID UK.
DFID (2005) Why we need to work more in fragile states, DFID UK.
DoE (2005a) Flash Report 1, 2062, Bhaktapur.
DoE (2005b) Flash Report 11, 2061, Bhaktapur.
DoE (2005) Annual Strategic Implementation Plan, 2005-2006, Programme and Budget Section, Bhakttapur.
Ersado, L. (2005) "Child Labor and Schooling Decisions in Urban and Rural Areas: Comparative Evidence from Nepal, Peru, and Zimbabwe." World Development 33(3): 455-480.
ESAT (2005) Nepal Education Sector: Planning for Results in an Unstable Setting, MfDR Principles in Action: Sourcebook of Emerging Good Practices.
GTZ (2004), Education and Conflict, GTZ.
Goodhand, J. (2001) Conflict Assessments: A synthesis report: Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Nepal and Sri Lanka, The Conflict, Security & Development Group, Centre for Defence Studies, King's College, University of London.
Goodhand, J. (2001) Research in zones of violent conflict, Methods for Analysing Chronic Poverty, Project Reference CPRC0003.
Goodhand, J. (2001) Violent Conflict, Poverty and Chronic Poverty, CPRC Working Paper 6, Chronic Poverty Research Centre.
Hart, D. J. (2001) Conflict in Nepal & its Impact on Children, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford University.
Hart, D. J. and C. Khatiwada (2003) Participation of Conflict-Affected Children in Humanitarian Action: Learning from Nepal, County Case Study prepared for the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford University.
Hollants et al (2002), Report of the EC Conflict Prevention Assessment Mission Nepal, EC Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management Unit.
Hussein, K. (2004) Coping with conflict: livelihoods and development in Nepal, ID21.
Institute for Integrated Development Studies (IIDS) (2004) Review on incentive and scholarship (commissioned by the DoE), Kathmandu.
International Crisis Group (2005), Nepal: Beyond Royal Rule, Asia Briefing No. 4, Kathmandu/Brussels.
International Crisis Group (2005) Nepal’s New Alliance: The Mainstream Parties and the Maoists, Asia Report No 106.
International Crisis Group (2005), Nepal's Maoists: Their Aims, Structure and Strategy, Asia Report No 104.
IRIN (2005) Nepal: Focus on the impact of conflict on Education, 23 February.
Jenkins, M. (2005) Winning People's Will for Girl Child Education: Community Mobilization for Gender Equality in Basic Education: A Case Study. UNESCO Kathmandu
Leader, N and Colenso, P (2005) Aid Instruments in fragile states, PRDE Working Paper 5.
Little, Angela W. (2004) Learning and Teaching in Multigrade Settings, Paper prepared for the UNESCO 2005 EFA Monitoring Report.
Maslak, M. A. (2001) "The "SWAP": One Financial Strategy for Educational Development in Nepal." Current Issues in Comparative Education 3(2).
MOES (2003), Education for All 2004-2009, Core Document.
MOES (2004) School Level Educational Statistics at a Glance, Kathmandu
MOES (2005), Annual Strategic Implementation Plan 2005-2006.
Nepal, K. (2005) The Maoist Service Provision in Parts of Mid and Far West Nepal, Center for Professional Journalism Studies, Kathmandu.
OECD (2005) Principles for good international engagement in fragile states, DAC.
OECD (2005) Service Delivery In Fragile States: Advancing Donor Practice, DAC.
Prasada, C. (2001) Case Study: Operationalizing Rights-Based Programming, Kathmandu, UNICEF Nepal.
Rajbhandary, J. (2002) Safe space for girls? ID21.
Singh & Jensen (2005) Nepal Education Sector: Planning for Results in an Unstable Setting, MfDR Principles in Action: Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice.
Smith, A. (2005) Education in the 21st Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation. Compare, Journal of the British Association for International and Comparative Education, Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 373-391.
Smith, A & Vaux, T (2003), Education, Conflict and International Development, DFID.
Sommers, M. (2002) Children, Education and War: Reaching Education For All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict, Working Papers, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit, World Bank.
Spink, J. (2005) Education and politics in Afghanistan: the importance of an education system in peacebuilding and reconstruction, Journal of Peace Education, 2(2), 195–207.
Suzuki, T. (2002) Out of sight, out of mind? Multigrade teaching in Nepal, ID21.
TRSE (2005) Technical Review of School Education in Nepal – Report.
UNDP (2003) Conflict-related Development Analysis (CDA), Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery.
UNESCO (2002) Education for All, An international strategy to put the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All into operation, EFA Strategy Document.
UNESCO (2003) Guidelines for Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis - EFA Strategic Planning, Division of Policies and Strategies of Education.
UNESCO (2006) A Study on the functioning and effectiveness of the scholarship and incentive schemes in Nepal, Kathmandu Series of Working Papers and Monographs: No 8.
Vaux & Visman (2005) Service Delivery in Countries Emerging from Conflict, Report for DFID, Centre for International Co-operation and Security, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK.
Watchlist (2005) Caught in the Middle: Mounting Violations Against Children in Nepal's Armed Conflict, Watch List on Children and Armed Conflict, Watch List.
World Bank (2004) Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Credit for an Education For All Project, Human Development Unit, South Asia Region.
World Bank (2005), Reshaping the Future: Education and Postconflict Reconstruction.
World Bank (2005), Toward a Conflict-
- Education For All