Education, Conflict and International Development

Alan Smith, Tony Vaux

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

Abstract

What is the relationship between education and conflict, and how should the education sector respond to conflict? This paper, written for the Department for International Development, argues that more attention should be paid to the fact that education is not always a force for good and can sometimes help create the conditions for conflict. Donors need to consider this when allocating resources.Many contemporary conflicts take place within states as well as between states. Low-level conflicts form the backdrop to the lives of many poor people. In this context, issues of health, employment and education must be addressed. Internationally, education is regarded as a fundamental right. Yet in conflict situations, a hierarchy of rights tends to emerge, with education a low priority. Globally, education is also regarded as an essential tool for human development and poverty eradication. However, efforts to widen access to education need to focus more on how education can affect conflict. There is an urgent need to develop methods to track whether 'progress' in education may also create tensions that could spark or exacerbate conflict. At the very least it must be understood that education can be part of the problem as well as part of the solution.Providing education in countries in conflict or emerging from conflict raises the following issues:•State education can heighten tensions in various ways. These include systems of governance and policies on issues such as the language of instruction, access and curriculum content.•In conflict states, education can play a key role in protecting civilians, particularly girls, from the worst effects. However, running education systems can be difficult in emergency situations.•Providing education is especially problematic where there are no structures, as in the context of internal displacement. Immediate responses may have few links with longer-term education aid.•After conflict, the educational reconstruction process must consider whether to replace what existed before or to undertake major reform.•Education also has an important role to play in the process of reconciliation by addressing the legacies of conflict.Given the risks, donors need to ask whether contributing resources to education could make the conflict worse. To avoid this, they should conduct country-specific analysis in which education issues are considered alongside the political, security, economic and social dimensions of conflict. Other policy implications include:•Analysis of the role of education in conflict is still fragmented and needs to become more systemic. Donors should work strategically with each other.•The international community is focusing on special forms of education for specific groups, but more attention should be paid to issues involving the huge numbers of children in formal education.•Both conflict and education are transforming processes, and opportunities should be sought to develop "conflict-sensitive" education systems, as well as indicators to assess and monitor them.•In emergencies, education should be seen as a right, not a luxury and regarded as an integral part of the response.•While the educational status of child soldiers has received much attention, the exclusion of adolescent girls and disabled children from school during conflict has been neglected and should be addressed.•The large numbers of international organisations interested in conflict and education can cause confusion. There is a need for better co-ordination at international and government levels.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages72
Publication statusPublished - 2003

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education

Keywords

  • education
  • conflict
  • international development

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@book{31fa2816b8eb43398d551cce51efa242,
title = "Education, Conflict and International Development",
abstract = "What is the relationship between education and conflict, and how should the education sector respond to conflict? This paper, written for the Department for International Development, argues that more attention should be paid to the fact that education is not always a force for good and can sometimes help create the conditions for conflict. Donors need to consider this when allocating resources.Many contemporary conflicts take place within states as well as between states. Low-level conflicts form the backdrop to the lives of many poor people. In this context, issues of health, employment and education must be addressed. Internationally, education is regarded as a fundamental right. Yet in conflict situations, a hierarchy of rights tends to emerge, with education a low priority. Globally, education is also regarded as an essential tool for human development and poverty eradication. However, efforts to widen access to education need to focus more on how education can affect conflict. There is an urgent need to develop methods to track whether 'progress' in education may also create tensions that could spark or exacerbate conflict. At the very least it must be understood that education can be part of the problem as well as part of the solution.Providing education in countries in conflict or emerging from conflict raises the following issues:•State education can heighten tensions in various ways. These include systems of governance and policies on issues such as the language of instruction, access and curriculum content.•In conflict states, education can play a key role in protecting civilians, particularly girls, from the worst effects. However, running education systems can be difficult in emergency situations.•Providing education is especially problematic where there are no structures, as in the context of internal displacement. Immediate responses may have few links with longer-term education aid.•After conflict, the educational reconstruction process must consider whether to replace what existed before or to undertake major reform.•Education also has an important role to play in the process of reconciliation by addressing the legacies of conflict.Given the risks, donors need to ask whether contributing resources to education could make the conflict worse. To avoid this, they should conduct country-specific analysis in which education issues are considered alongside the political, security, economic and social dimensions of conflict. Other policy implications include:•Analysis of the role of education in conflict is still fragmented and needs to become more systemic. Donors should work strategically with each other.•The international community is focusing on special forms of education for specific groups, but more attention should be paid to issues involving the huge numbers of children in formal education.•Both conflict and education are transforming processes, and opportunities should be sought to develop {"}conflict-sensitive{"} education systems, as well as indicators to assess and monitor them.•In emergencies, education should be seen as a right, not a luxury and regarded as an integral part of the response.•While the educational status of child soldiers has received much attention, the exclusion of adolescent girls and disabled children from school during conflict has been neglected and should be addressed.•The large numbers of international organisations interested in conflict and education can cause confusion. There is a need for better co-ordination at international and government levels.",
keywords = "education, conflict, international development",
author = "Alan Smith and Tony Vaux",
note = "Reference text: CONFLICT ANALYSIS Berdal, M and Malone D (eds) (2000) Greed and Grievance – economic agendas in civil wars Lynne Rienner, Colorado Department For International Development (2001) The Causes of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa; Framework Document, DFID, London. Department for International Development (2002) Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes, DFID, London Coletta, N.J. and Cullen, M.L. (2000) Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank, Washington D.C. Duffield, M (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars, Zed Books Kaldor, M (1999) New and Old Wars – organised violence in a global era Cambridge Polity Press Richards, P (1996) Fighting for the Rainforest – war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone, James Currey. Short, C (1999) ‘Conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post conflict peace-building – from rhetoric to reality’, Speech by the Rt. Hon. Clare Short, Secretary of State for International Development. FORMAL EDUCATION Bush, Kenneth D and Saltarelli, Diana (2000) The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict, United Nations Children’s Fund, Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, Italy. Delors, J et al (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, UNESCO Publishing, Paris. Delors, J et al (1998) Education for the Twenty-first Century: Issues and prospects, UNESCO Publishing, Paris. Department For International Development (1999) Learning opportunities for all: A Policy Framework for Education, DFID, London. Department For International Development (2001) The Challenge of Universal Primary Education, DFID, London. Department For International Development (2001) Children out of school, Issues Paper, DFID, London. UNESCO (2000) Country Guidelines on the Preparation of National EFA Plans of Action, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2000) Education For All 2000 Assessment, Statistical Document, World Education Forum, UNESCO, Paris UNESCO (2001) Education For All: initiatives, issues and strategies, Report of the Working Group on Education For All held at UNESCO Headquarters, 22-24 November 2000, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2002) Education For All. Is The World On Track? EFA Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO Publishing, Paris. World Education Forum (2000) The Dakar Framework for Action, UNESCO, Paris EDUCATION IN CONFLICT AND EMERGENCIES Crisp, J, Talbot, C and Cipollone, DB (eds)(2001) Learning for A Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries, Geneva, UNHCR Goodwin-Gill, G and Ilene Cohn (1994) Child Soldiers the role of children in armed conflicts, Clarendon, Oxford. Lowicki, J (2000) Untapped Potential: Adolescents affected by armed conflict. A review of programs and policies, New York, Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. www.intrescom.org/wcrwc.html Machel, G (1996) UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, www.unicef.org/graca/women.htm Machel, G (2000) The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. A critical review of progress made and obstacles encountered in increasing protection for war-affected children, www.waraffectedchildren.com/machel-e.asp Minority Rights Group International & UNICEF (1997) War: The Impact on Minority and Indigenous Children, Redwood Books, UK. Ngwata, W. (2002) ‘Education in Emergencies. Why prioritise education during emergencies?’, SADC Education Forum, Livingstone, Zambia, 13 November 2001. Retamal, G. and Aedo-Richmond, R. (eds) (1998) Education as a Humanitarian Response, Cassell, London. Schmeidl, S (1998) ‘Global trends in forced displacement: IDPs and refugees, 1964-96’, in Hampton, J (1998) Internally Displaced People. A Global Survey, Earthscan & Global IDP survey, London, & Norwegian Refugee Council. World Education Forum (2000) Thematic Study: Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: Challenges for the New Century, UNESCO, Paris. EDUCATION AS PART OF RECONSTRUCTION AND RECONCILIATION Department For International Development (1999) Towards Responsive Schools: case studies from Save the Children, DFID, London. Kreimer, A & Eriksson, J & Muscat, R & Arnold, M & Scott, C (1998) The World Bank’s Experience with Post-Conflict Reconstruction, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Overseas Development Administration (1996) Education for Reconstruction Pigozzi, M (1999) Education in Emergencies and for Reconstruction: A developmental Approach, UNICEF working paper series. UNICEF (1999) Education in Emergencies and for Reconstruction, Document No. UNICEF/PD/ED/99-1, UNICEF, New York. World Bank (1997) A Framework for World Bank Involvement in Post-conflict Reconstruction, World Bank, Washington D.C.",
year = "2003",
language = "English",

}

Education, Conflict and International Development. / Smith, Alan; Vaux, Tony.

2003. 72 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

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AU - Smith, Alan

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N1 - Reference text: CONFLICT ANALYSIS Berdal, M and Malone D (eds) (2000) Greed and Grievance – economic agendas in civil wars Lynne Rienner, Colorado Department For International Development (2001) The Causes of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa; Framework Document, DFID, London. Department for International Development (2002) Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes, DFID, London Coletta, N.J. and Cullen, M.L. (2000) Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank, Washington D.C. Duffield, M (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars, Zed Books Kaldor, M (1999) New and Old Wars – organised violence in a global era Cambridge Polity Press Richards, P (1996) Fighting for the Rainforest – war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone, James Currey. Short, C (1999) ‘Conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post conflict peace-building – from rhetoric to reality’, Speech by the Rt. Hon. Clare Short, Secretary of State for International Development. FORMAL EDUCATION Bush, Kenneth D and Saltarelli, Diana (2000) The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict, United Nations Children’s Fund, Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, Italy. Delors, J et al (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, UNESCO Publishing, Paris. Delors, J et al (1998) Education for the Twenty-first Century: Issues and prospects, UNESCO Publishing, Paris. Department For International Development (1999) Learning opportunities for all: A Policy Framework for Education, DFID, London. Department For International Development (2001) The Challenge of Universal Primary Education, DFID, London. Department For International Development (2001) Children out of school, Issues Paper, DFID, London. UNESCO (2000) Country Guidelines on the Preparation of National EFA Plans of Action, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2000) Education For All 2000 Assessment, Statistical Document, World Education Forum, UNESCO, Paris UNESCO (2001) Education For All: initiatives, issues and strategies, Report of the Working Group on Education For All held at UNESCO Headquarters, 22-24 November 2000, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2002) Education For All. Is The World On Track? EFA Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO Publishing, Paris. World Education Forum (2000) The Dakar Framework for Action, UNESCO, Paris EDUCATION IN CONFLICT AND EMERGENCIES Crisp, J, Talbot, C and Cipollone, DB (eds)(2001) Learning for A Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries, Geneva, UNHCR Goodwin-Gill, G and Ilene Cohn (1994) Child Soldiers the role of children in armed conflicts, Clarendon, Oxford. Lowicki, J (2000) Untapped Potential: Adolescents affected by armed conflict. A review of programs and policies, New York, Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. www.intrescom.org/wcrwc.html Machel, G (1996) UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, www.unicef.org/graca/women.htm Machel, G (2000) The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. A critical review of progress made and obstacles encountered in increasing protection for war-affected children, www.waraffectedchildren.com/machel-e.asp Minority Rights Group International & UNICEF (1997) War: The Impact on Minority and Indigenous Children, Redwood Books, UK. Ngwata, W. (2002) ‘Education in Emergencies. Why prioritise education during emergencies?’, SADC Education Forum, Livingstone, Zambia, 13 November 2001. Retamal, G. and Aedo-Richmond, R. (eds) (1998) Education as a Humanitarian Response, Cassell, London. Schmeidl, S (1998) ‘Global trends in forced displacement: IDPs and refugees, 1964-96’, in Hampton, J (1998) Internally Displaced People. A Global Survey, Earthscan & Global IDP survey, London, & Norwegian Refugee Council. World Education Forum (2000) Thematic Study: Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: Challenges for the New Century, UNESCO, Paris. EDUCATION AS PART OF RECONSTRUCTION AND RECONCILIATION Department For International Development (1999) Towards Responsive Schools: case studies from Save the Children, DFID, London. Kreimer, A & Eriksson, J & Muscat, R & Arnold, M & Scott, C (1998) The World Bank’s Experience with Post-Conflict Reconstruction, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Overseas Development Administration (1996) Education for Reconstruction Pigozzi, M (1999) Education in Emergencies and for Reconstruction: A developmental Approach, UNICEF working paper series. UNICEF (1999) Education in Emergencies and for Reconstruction, Document No. UNICEF/PD/ED/99-1, UNICEF, New York. World Bank (1997) A Framework for World Bank Involvement in Post-conflict Reconstruction, World Bank, Washington D.C.

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N2 - What is the relationship between education and conflict, and how should the education sector respond to conflict? This paper, written for the Department for International Development, argues that more attention should be paid to the fact that education is not always a force for good and can sometimes help create the conditions for conflict. Donors need to consider this when allocating resources.Many contemporary conflicts take place within states as well as between states. Low-level conflicts form the backdrop to the lives of many poor people. In this context, issues of health, employment and education must be addressed. Internationally, education is regarded as a fundamental right. Yet in conflict situations, a hierarchy of rights tends to emerge, with education a low priority. Globally, education is also regarded as an essential tool for human development and poverty eradication. However, efforts to widen access to education need to focus more on how education can affect conflict. There is an urgent need to develop methods to track whether 'progress' in education may also create tensions that could spark or exacerbate conflict. At the very least it must be understood that education can be part of the problem as well as part of the solution.Providing education in countries in conflict or emerging from conflict raises the following issues:•State education can heighten tensions in various ways. These include systems of governance and policies on issues such as the language of instruction, access and curriculum content.•In conflict states, education can play a key role in protecting civilians, particularly girls, from the worst effects. However, running education systems can be difficult in emergency situations.•Providing education is especially problematic where there are no structures, as in the context of internal displacement. Immediate responses may have few links with longer-term education aid.•After conflict, the educational reconstruction process must consider whether to replace what existed before or to undertake major reform.•Education also has an important role to play in the process of reconciliation by addressing the legacies of conflict.Given the risks, donors need to ask whether contributing resources to education could make the conflict worse. To avoid this, they should conduct country-specific analysis in which education issues are considered alongside the political, security, economic and social dimensions of conflict. Other policy implications include:•Analysis of the role of education in conflict is still fragmented and needs to become more systemic. Donors should work strategically with each other.•The international community is focusing on special forms of education for specific groups, but more attention should be paid to issues involving the huge numbers of children in formal education.•Both conflict and education are transforming processes, and opportunities should be sought to develop "conflict-sensitive" education systems, as well as indicators to assess and monitor them.•In emergencies, education should be seen as a right, not a luxury and regarded as an integral part of the response.•While the educational status of child soldiers has received much attention, the exclusion of adolescent girls and disabled children from school during conflict has been neglected and should be addressed.•The large numbers of international organisations interested in conflict and education can cause confusion. There is a need for better co-ordination at international and government levels.

AB - What is the relationship between education and conflict, and how should the education sector respond to conflict? This paper, written for the Department for International Development, argues that more attention should be paid to the fact that education is not always a force for good and can sometimes help create the conditions for conflict. Donors need to consider this when allocating resources.Many contemporary conflicts take place within states as well as between states. Low-level conflicts form the backdrop to the lives of many poor people. In this context, issues of health, employment and education must be addressed. Internationally, education is regarded as a fundamental right. Yet in conflict situations, a hierarchy of rights tends to emerge, with education a low priority. Globally, education is also regarded as an essential tool for human development and poverty eradication. However, efforts to widen access to education need to focus more on how education can affect conflict. There is an urgent need to develop methods to track whether 'progress' in education may also create tensions that could spark or exacerbate conflict. At the very least it must be understood that education can be part of the problem as well as part of the solution.Providing education in countries in conflict or emerging from conflict raises the following issues:•State education can heighten tensions in various ways. These include systems of governance and policies on issues such as the language of instruction, access and curriculum content.•In conflict states, education can play a key role in protecting civilians, particularly girls, from the worst effects. However, running education systems can be difficult in emergency situations.•Providing education is especially problematic where there are no structures, as in the context of internal displacement. Immediate responses may have few links with longer-term education aid.•After conflict, the educational reconstruction process must consider whether to replace what existed before or to undertake major reform.•Education also has an important role to play in the process of reconciliation by addressing the legacies of conflict.Given the risks, donors need to ask whether contributing resources to education could make the conflict worse. To avoid this, they should conduct country-specific analysis in which education issues are considered alongside the political, security, economic and social dimensions of conflict. Other policy implications include:•Analysis of the role of education in conflict is still fragmented and needs to become more systemic. Donors should work strategically with each other.•The international community is focusing on special forms of education for specific groups, but more attention should be paid to issues involving the huge numbers of children in formal education.•Both conflict and education are transforming processes, and opportunities should be sought to develop "conflict-sensitive" education systems, as well as indicators to assess and monitor them.•In emergencies, education should be seen as a right, not a luxury and regarded as an integral part of the response.•While the educational status of child soldiers has received much attention, the exclusion of adolescent girls and disabled children from school during conflict has been neglected and should be addressed.•The large numbers of international organisations interested in conflict and education can cause confusion. There is a need for better co-ordination at international and government levels.

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