Coastal systems are the result of a natural equilibrium between hydrodynamic, atmospheric, and terrestrial parameters and sediment dynamics. In the Anthropocene, this equilibrium in many coastal regions can be altered by human activities. These activities may globally magnify the effects of extreme meteorological events and sea level rise and directly influence coastal processes down to a local scale within and between river catchments, the sea, and the coast. While most interventions, such as urban development, seawalls, and jetties are placed for specific human benefits, their indirect effects on coastal economies, societies and ecosystems can be significant.
- sea-level rise
- ecosystem services