Echocardiographic screening for congenital heart disease: A randomized study

Andrew Sands, Brian Craig, Connor Mulholland, Christopher Patterson, James Dornan, Frank Casey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and potential cost of an echocardiographic screening program for congenital heart disease (CHD). Patients and methods: Between 01/11/94 and 28/02/98 there were 9697 deliveries in The Royal Maternity Hospital Belfast. Mothers were randomized before delivery. 4875 infants were allocated to the scan group, while 4822 were assigned to clinical assessment alone. High-risk infants were considered separately. Cases of CHD detected before hospital discharge were documented. The annual cost of screening was estimated and the time to accurate diagnosis in each group was assessed. Results: During the study 124 scan allocated infants and 50 controls were identified as having significant CHD before hospital discharge. With a minimum of 3 years follow-up there were 27 additional late diagnoses in controls and 1 in scanned infants. During a single year of the study the mean time to complete diagnosis was 2 days for scanned cases and 110 in controls. The projected cost of screening for all infants was £ 22/infant for the first year. Conclusions: Adding echocardiography to clinical examination greatly enhances early detection of CHD. Although screening is expensive, once established it may reduce the cost of unnecessary outpatient referrals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-312
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Perinatal Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 26 Jul 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the assistance of Mrs. Jayne Johnston (senior sonographer) and staff midwife Mrs.Catherine Lynch.Our thanks also go to the charities NIMBA and HEARTBEAT for their financial support.


  • Congenital
  • Disease
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart
  • Neonatal
  • Screening


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