Dynamic Stretching and Golf Swing Performance

K.A. Moran, T. McGrath, B.M. Marshall, E.S. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dynamic stretching, static stretching and no stretching, as part of a general warm-up, on golf swing performance with a five-iron. Measures of performance were taken 0 min, 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after stretching. Dynamic stretching produced significantly greater club head speeds than both static stretching (Δ=1.9m.s−1; p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=1.7 m.s−1; p=0.000), and greater ball speeds than both static stretching (Δ=3.5m.s−1; p=0.003) and no stretching (Δ=3.3m.s−1; p=0.001). Dynamic stretching produced significantly straighter swing-paths than both static stretching (Δ=−0.61°, p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=−0.72°, p=0.01). Dynamic stretching also produced more central impact points than the static stretch (Δ=0.7 cm, p=0.001). For the club face angle, there was no effect of either stretch or time. For all of the variables measured, there was no significant difference between the static stretch and no stretch conditions. All of the results were unaffected by the time of measurement after stretching. The results indicate that dynamic stretching should be used as part of a general warm-up in golf.
LanguageEnglish
Pages113-118
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume30
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Muscle Stretching Exercises
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Moran, K.A. ; McGrath, T. ; Marshall, B.M. ; Wallace, E.S. / Dynamic Stretching and Golf Swing Performance. In: International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 30, No. 2. pp. 113-118.
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title = "Dynamic Stretching and Golf Swing Performance",
abstract = "The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dynamic stretching, static stretching and no stretching, as part of a general warm-up, on golf swing performance with a five-iron. Measures of performance were taken 0 min, 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after stretching. Dynamic stretching produced significantly greater club head speeds than both static stretching (Δ=1.9m.s−1; p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=1.7 m.s−1; p=0.000), and greater ball speeds than both static stretching (Δ=3.5m.s−1; p=0.003) and no stretching (Δ=3.3m.s−1; p=0.001). Dynamic stretching produced significantly straighter swing-paths than both static stretching (Δ=−0.61°, p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=−0.72°, p=0.01). Dynamic stretching also produced more central impact points than the static stretch (Δ=0.7 cm, p=0.001). For the club face angle, there was no effect of either stretch or time. For all of the variables measured, there was no significant difference between the static stretch and no stretch conditions. All of the results were unaffected by the time of measurement after stretching. The results indicate that dynamic stretching should be used as part of a general warm-up in golf.",
author = "K.A. Moran and T. McGrath and B.M. Marshall and E.S. Wallace",
note = "Reference text: 1 Bandy WD , Irion JM , Briggler M . The eff ect of static stretch and dynamic range of motion training on the fl exibility of the hamstring muscles . J Orthop Sport Phys 1998 ; 27 : 295 – 300 2 Bishop D . Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up . Sports Med 2003 ; 33 : 483 – 498 3 Chou A , Gilbert P , Olsavsky T . Club head designs: how they aff ect ball fl ight . In: Cochran AJ, ed. Golf, the Scientifi c Way . Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire: Afton ; 1994 ; 15 – 25 4 Church JB , Wiggins MS , Moode FM , Crist R . Eff ect of warm-up and fl exibility treatments on vertical jump performance . J Strength Cond Res 2001 ; 15 : 332 – 336 5 Cornwell A , Nelson AG , Sidaway B . Acute eff ects of stretching on the neuromechanical properties of the triceps surae muscle complex . Eur J Appl Physiol 2002 ; 86 : 428 – 434 6 Fletcher IM , Jones B . The eff ect of diff erent warm-up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players . J Strength Cond Res 2004 ; 18 : 885 – 888 7 Fradkin AJ , Sherman CA , Finch CF . Improving golf performance with a warm up conditioning programme . Br J Sports Med 2004 ; 38 : 762 – 765 8 Holcomb WR . Stretching and warm-up . In: Baechle T, Earle R, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics ; 2000 ; 321 – 342 9 Hume PA , Keogh J , Reid D . The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots . Sports Med 2005 ; 35 : 429 – 449 10 Knudson D . Stretching during warm-up: do we have enough evidence? J Phys Educ Recr Dance 1999 ; 70 : 25 – 27 11 Knudson D , Noff al G . Time course of stretch-induced isometric strength defi cits . Eur J Appl Physiol 2005 ; 94 : 348 – 351 12 Knudson DV , Noff al GJ , Bahamonde RE , Bauer JA , Blackwell JR . Stretching has no eff ect on tennis serve performance . J Strength Cond Res 2004 ; 18 : 654 – 656 13 Kokkonen J , Nelson AG , Cornwell A . Acute muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance . Res Q Exercise Sport 1998 ; 69 : 411 – 415 14 Little T , Williams AG . Eff ects of diff erential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players . J Strength Cond Res 2006 ; 20 : 203 – 207 15 Lowe R . Centrigual force and the planar golf swing . London: E & FN Spon ; 1994 ; 59 – 64 16 MacAtee R , Charland J . Facilitated stretching . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics ; 1999 ; 21 17 MacNeal JR , Sands WA . Stretching for performance enhancement . Curr Sports Med Rep 2006 ; 5 : 141 – 146 18 MacTeigue M , Lamb S , Mottram R , Pirozzolo F . Spine and hip motion analysis during the golf swing . In: Cochran A, Farrally M, eds. Science and Golf II. Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientifi c Conference of Golf . London: E & FN Spon ; 1994 ; 50 – 57 19 Moran K , Wallace E . Eccentric loading and range of knee joint motion eff ects on performance enhancement in vertical jumping . Hum Movement Sci 2007 ; 26 : 824 – 840 20 Nelson AG , Driscoll NM , Landin DK , Young MA , Schexnayder IC . Acute eff ects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance . J Sport Sci 2005 ; 23 : 449 – 454 21 Nelson AG , Guillory IK , Cornwell C , Kokkonen J . Inhibition of maximal voluntary isokinetic torque production following stretching is velocity- specifi c . J Strength Cond Res 2001 ; 15 : 241 – 246 22 Pollitt D . The golf specifi c warm up . NSCA Performance Training Journal 2005 ; 4 : 19 – 22 23 Power K , Behm D , Cahill F , Carroll M , Young W . An acute bout of static stretching: eff ects on force and jumping performance . Med Sci Sport Exer 2004 ; 36 : 1389 – 1396 24 President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sport . Current issues in fl exibility fi tness . President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest 2000 ; 3 : 1 – 8 25 Shellock FG , Prentice WE . Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries . Sports Med 1985 ; 2 : 267 – 278 26 Shrier I . Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med 2004 ; 14 : 267 – 273 27 Siatras T , Papadopoulos G , Mameletzi D , Gerodimos V , Kellis S . Static and dynamic acute stretching eff ect on gymnastics ’ speed in vaulting . Pediatr Exerc Sci 2003 ; 15 : 383 – 391 28 Theriault G , Lachance P . Golf injuries. An overview . Sports Med 1998 ; 26 : 43 – 57 29 Thomas J , Nelson J . Measuring research variables. Research methods in physical activity . Champaign: Human Kinetics ; 2001 ; 181 – 200 30 Unick J , Kieff er HS , Cheesman W , Feeney A . The acute eff ects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women . J Strength Cond Res 2005 ; 19 : 206 – 212 31 Wallmann HW , Mercer JA , MacWhorter JW . Surface electromyographic assessment of the eff ect of static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance . J Strength Cond Res 2005 ; 19 : 684 – 688 32 Williams KR , Sih BL . Changes in golf clubface orientation following impact with the ball . Sports Engineering 2002 ; 5 : 65 – 80 33 Wilmore J , Costill D . Physiology of sport and exercise . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics ; 2004 ; 624 – 625 34 Witvrouw E , Mahieu N , Danneels L , MacNair P . Stretching and injury prevention: an obscure relationship . Sports Med 2004 ; 34 : 443 – 449 35 Woods K , Bishop P , Jones E . Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury 1 . Sports Med 2007 ; 37 : 1089 – 1099 36 Yamaguchi T , Ishii K . Eff ects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power . J Strength Cond Res 2005 ; 19 : 677 – 683 37 Young W , Behm D . Should static stretching be used during a warm-up for strength and power? Strength Condit J 2002 ; 24 : 33 – 37 38 Young W , Clothier P , Otago L , Bruce L , Liddell D . Acute eff ects of static stretching on hip fl exor and quadriceps fl exibility, range of motion and foot speed in kicking a football . J Sci Med Sport 2004 ; 7 : 23 – 31 39 Young W , Elliott S . Acute eff ects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, and maximum voluntary contractions on explosive force production and jumping performance . Res Q Exercise Sport 2001 ; 72 : 273 – 279 40 Young WB , Behm DG . Eff ects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance . J Sport Med Phys Fit 2003 ; 43 : 21 – 27 41 Zakas A , Vergou A , Grammatikopoulou MG , Zakas N , Sentelidis T , Vamvakoudis S . The eff ect of stretching during warming-up on the fl exibility of junior handball players . J Sport Med Phys Fit 2003 ; 43 : 145 – 149",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1055/s-0028-1103303",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "113--118",
journal = "International Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0172-4622",
number = "2",

}

Dynamic Stretching and Golf Swing Performance. / Moran, K.A.; McGrath, T.; Marshall, B.M.; Wallace, E.S.

In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2009, p. 113-118.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dynamic Stretching and Golf Swing Performance

AU - Moran, K.A.

AU - McGrath, T.

AU - Marshall, B.M.

AU - Wallace, E.S.

N1 - Reference text: 1 Bandy WD , Irion JM , Briggler M . The eff ect of static stretch and dynamic range of motion training on the fl exibility of the hamstring muscles . J Orthop Sport Phys 1998 ; 27 : 295 – 300 2 Bishop D . Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up . Sports Med 2003 ; 33 : 483 – 498 3 Chou A , Gilbert P , Olsavsky T . Club head designs: how they aff ect ball fl ight . In: Cochran AJ, ed. Golf, the Scientifi c Way . Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire: Afton ; 1994 ; 15 – 25 4 Church JB , Wiggins MS , Moode FM , Crist R . Eff ect of warm-up and fl exibility treatments on vertical jump performance . J Strength Cond Res 2001 ; 15 : 332 – 336 5 Cornwell A , Nelson AG , Sidaway B . Acute eff ects of stretching on the neuromechanical properties of the triceps surae muscle complex . Eur J Appl Physiol 2002 ; 86 : 428 – 434 6 Fletcher IM , Jones B . The eff ect of diff erent warm-up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players . J Strength Cond Res 2004 ; 18 : 885 – 888 7 Fradkin AJ , Sherman CA , Finch CF . Improving golf performance with a warm up conditioning programme . Br J Sports Med 2004 ; 38 : 762 – 765 8 Holcomb WR . Stretching and warm-up . In: Baechle T, Earle R, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics ; 2000 ; 321 – 342 9 Hume PA , Keogh J , Reid D . The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots . Sports Med 2005 ; 35 : 429 – 449 10 Knudson D . Stretching during warm-up: do we have enough evidence? J Phys Educ Recr Dance 1999 ; 70 : 25 – 27 11 Knudson D , Noff al G . Time course of stretch-induced isometric strength defi cits . Eur J Appl Physiol 2005 ; 94 : 348 – 351 12 Knudson DV , Noff al GJ , Bahamonde RE , Bauer JA , Blackwell JR . Stretching has no eff ect on tennis serve performance . J Strength Cond Res 2004 ; 18 : 654 – 656 13 Kokkonen J , Nelson AG , Cornwell A . Acute muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance . Res Q Exercise Sport 1998 ; 69 : 411 – 415 14 Little T , Williams AG . Eff ects of diff erential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players . J Strength Cond Res 2006 ; 20 : 203 – 207 15 Lowe R . Centrigual force and the planar golf swing . London: E & FN Spon ; 1994 ; 59 – 64 16 MacAtee R , Charland J . Facilitated stretching . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics ; 1999 ; 21 17 MacNeal JR , Sands WA . Stretching for performance enhancement . Curr Sports Med Rep 2006 ; 5 : 141 – 146 18 MacTeigue M , Lamb S , Mottram R , Pirozzolo F . Spine and hip motion analysis during the golf swing . In: Cochran A, Farrally M, eds. Science and Golf II. Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientifi c Conference of Golf . London: E & FN Spon ; 1994 ; 50 – 57 19 Moran K , Wallace E . Eccentric loading and range of knee joint motion eff ects on performance enhancement in vertical jumping . Hum Movement Sci 2007 ; 26 : 824 – 840 20 Nelson AG , Driscoll NM , Landin DK , Young MA , Schexnayder IC . Acute eff ects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance . J Sport Sci 2005 ; 23 : 449 – 454 21 Nelson AG , Guillory IK , Cornwell C , Kokkonen J . Inhibition of maximal voluntary isokinetic torque production following stretching is velocity- specifi c . J Strength Cond Res 2001 ; 15 : 241 – 246 22 Pollitt D . The golf specifi c warm up . NSCA Performance Training Journal 2005 ; 4 : 19 – 22 23 Power K , Behm D , Cahill F , Carroll M , Young W . An acute bout of static stretching: eff ects on force and jumping performance . Med Sci Sport Exer 2004 ; 36 : 1389 – 1396 24 President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sport . Current issues in fl exibility fi tness . President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest 2000 ; 3 : 1 – 8 25 Shellock FG , Prentice WE . Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries . Sports Med 1985 ; 2 : 267 – 278 26 Shrier I . Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med 2004 ; 14 : 267 – 273 27 Siatras T , Papadopoulos G , Mameletzi D , Gerodimos V , Kellis S . Static and dynamic acute stretching eff ect on gymnastics ’ speed in vaulting . Pediatr Exerc Sci 2003 ; 15 : 383 – 391 28 Theriault G , Lachance P . Golf injuries. An overview . Sports Med 1998 ; 26 : 43 – 57 29 Thomas J , Nelson J . Measuring research variables. Research methods in physical activity . Champaign: Human Kinetics ; 2001 ; 181 – 200 30 Unick J , Kieff er HS , Cheesman W , Feeney A . The acute eff ects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women . J Strength Cond Res 2005 ; 19 : 206 – 212 31 Wallmann HW , Mercer JA , MacWhorter JW . Surface electromyographic assessment of the eff ect of static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance . J Strength Cond Res 2005 ; 19 : 684 – 688 32 Williams KR , Sih BL . Changes in golf clubface orientation following impact with the ball . Sports Engineering 2002 ; 5 : 65 – 80 33 Wilmore J , Costill D . Physiology of sport and exercise . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics ; 2004 ; 624 – 625 34 Witvrouw E , Mahieu N , Danneels L , MacNair P . Stretching and injury prevention: an obscure relationship . Sports Med 2004 ; 34 : 443 – 449 35 Woods K , Bishop P , Jones E . Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury 1 . Sports Med 2007 ; 37 : 1089 – 1099 36 Yamaguchi T , Ishii K . Eff ects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power . J Strength Cond Res 2005 ; 19 : 677 – 683 37 Young W , Behm D . Should static stretching be used during a warm-up for strength and power? Strength Condit J 2002 ; 24 : 33 – 37 38 Young W , Clothier P , Otago L , Bruce L , Liddell D . Acute eff ects of static stretching on hip fl exor and quadriceps fl exibility, range of motion and foot speed in kicking a football . J Sci Med Sport 2004 ; 7 : 23 – 31 39 Young W , Elliott S . Acute eff ects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, and maximum voluntary contractions on explosive force production and jumping performance . Res Q Exercise Sport 2001 ; 72 : 273 – 279 40 Young WB , Behm DG . Eff ects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance . J Sport Med Phys Fit 2003 ; 43 : 21 – 27 41 Zakas A , Vergou A , Grammatikopoulou MG , Zakas N , Sentelidis T , Vamvakoudis S . The eff ect of stretching during warming-up on the fl exibility of junior handball players . J Sport Med Phys Fit 2003 ; 43 : 145 – 149

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dynamic stretching, static stretching and no stretching, as part of a general warm-up, on golf swing performance with a five-iron. Measures of performance were taken 0 min, 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after stretching. Dynamic stretching produced significantly greater club head speeds than both static stretching (Δ=1.9m.s−1; p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=1.7 m.s−1; p=0.000), and greater ball speeds than both static stretching (Δ=3.5m.s−1; p=0.003) and no stretching (Δ=3.3m.s−1; p=0.001). Dynamic stretching produced significantly straighter swing-paths than both static stretching (Δ=−0.61°, p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=−0.72°, p=0.01). Dynamic stretching also produced more central impact points than the static stretch (Δ=0.7 cm, p=0.001). For the club face angle, there was no effect of either stretch or time. For all of the variables measured, there was no significant difference between the static stretch and no stretch conditions. All of the results were unaffected by the time of measurement after stretching. The results indicate that dynamic stretching should be used as part of a general warm-up in golf.

AB - The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dynamic stretching, static stretching and no stretching, as part of a general warm-up, on golf swing performance with a five-iron. Measures of performance were taken 0 min, 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after stretching. Dynamic stretching produced significantly greater club head speeds than both static stretching (Δ=1.9m.s−1; p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=1.7 m.s−1; p=0.000), and greater ball speeds than both static stretching (Δ=3.5m.s−1; p=0.003) and no stretching (Δ=3.3m.s−1; p=0.001). Dynamic stretching produced significantly straighter swing-paths than both static stretching (Δ=−0.61°, p=0.000) and no stretching (Δ=−0.72°, p=0.01). Dynamic stretching also produced more central impact points than the static stretch (Δ=0.7 cm, p=0.001). For the club face angle, there was no effect of either stretch or time. For all of the variables measured, there was no significant difference between the static stretch and no stretch conditions. All of the results were unaffected by the time of measurement after stretching. The results indicate that dynamic stretching should be used as part of a general warm-up in golf.

U2 - 10.1055/s-0028-1103303

DO - 10.1055/s-0028-1103303

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 113

EP - 118

JO - International Journal of Sports Medicine

T2 - International Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - International Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0172-4622

IS - 2

ER -