Despite considerable advances in biomaterials-based bone tissue engineering technologies, autografts remain the gold standard for rehabilitating critical-sized bone defects in the oral and maxillofacial (OMF) region. A majority of advanced synthetic bone substitutes (SBS's) have not transcended the pre-clinical stage due to inferior clinical performance and translational barriers, which include low scalability, high cost, regulatory restrictions, limited advanced facilities and human resources. The aim of this study is to develop clinically viable alternatives to address the challenges of bone tissue regeneration in the OMF region by developing 'dual network composites' (DNC's) of calcium metaphosphate (CMP)-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/alginate with osteogenic ions: calcium, zinc and strontium. To fabricate DNC's, single network composites of PVA/CMP with 10% ( ) gelatine particles as porogen were developed using two freeze-thawing cycles and subsequently interpenetrated by guluronate-dominant sodium alginate and chelated with calcium, zinc or strontium ions. Physicochemical, compressive, water uptake, thermal, morphological and in vitro biological properties of DNC's were characterised. The results demonstrated elastic 3D porous scaffolds resembling a 'spongy bone' with fluid absorbing capacity, easily sculptable to fit anatomically complex bone defects, biocompatible and osteoconductive in vitro, thus yielding potentially clinically viable for SBS alternatives in OMF surgery.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education for funding L Iskandar.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- bone tissue engineering
- calcium phosphate
- poly(vinyl alcohol)
- oral and maxillofacial surgery
- Oral and maxillofacial surgery
- Calcium phosphate
- Bone tissue engineering
- Poly(vinyl alcohol)