Drug delivery strategies for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy: From benchtop to clinical practice

C. M. Cassidy, M. M. Tunney, Paul McCarron, R. F. Donnelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)


Light and photosensitizer-mediated killing of many pathogens, termed photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), has been extensively investigated in vitro. A wide range of organisms from the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus to the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been proven to be susceptible to PACT. Multidrug-resistant strains are just as susceptible to this treatment as their naive counterparts. Both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses have demonstrated susceptibility in vitro, in addition to fungi and protozoa. Significantly, however, no clinical treatments based on PACT are currently licensed. This paper provides a comprehensive review of work carried out to date on delivery of photosensitizers for use in PACT, including topical, intranasal and oral/buccal delivery, as well as targeted delivery. We have also reviewed photo-antimicrobial surfaces. It is hoped that, through a rational approach to formulation design and subsequent success in small-scale clinical trials, more widespread use will be made of PACT in the clinic, to the benefit of patients worldwide. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-80
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009


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