Do thermal agents affect range of movement and mechanical properties in soft tissues? A systematic review.

CM Bleakley, JT Costello

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    24 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objectives: To examine the effect of thermal agents on the range of movement (ROM) and mechanical properties in soft tissue and to discuss their clinical relevance.Data Sources: Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2011 using Medical Subjects Headings and key words. We also undertook related articles searches and read referencelists of all incoming articles. Study Selection: Studies involving human participants describing the effects of thermal interventions on ROM and/or mechanical properties in soft tissue. Two reviewers independently screened studies against eligibility criteria.Data Extraction: Data were extracted independently by 2 review authors using a customized form. Methodologic quality was also assessed by 2 authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.Data Synthesis: Thirty-six studies, comprising a total of 1301 healthy participants, satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was a high risk of bias across all studies. Meta-analyses were not undertaken because of clinical heterogeneity; however, effect sizes were calculated. There wereconflicting data on the effect of cold on joint ROM, accessory joint movement, and passive stiffness. There was limited evidence to determine whether acute cold applications enhance the effects of stretching, and further evidence is required. There was evidence that heat increases ROM, and a combination of heat and stretching is more effective than stretching alone.Conclusions: Heat is an effective adjunct to developmental and therapeutic stretching techniques and should be the treatment of choice for enhancing ROM in a clinical or sporting setting. The effects of heat or ice on other important mechanical properties (eg, passive stiffness) remainequivocal and should be the focus of future study.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:149-63
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages149-163
    JournalArchives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation
    Volume94
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013

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    Hot Temperature
    Joints
    Medical Subject Headings
    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
    Information Storage and Retrieval
    Ice
    MEDLINE
    Meta-Analysis
    Healthy Volunteers
    Databases
    Therapeutics

    Cite this

    @article{d207ca908b4f409ba827e9b3ece927e2,
    title = "Do thermal agents affect range of movement and mechanical properties in soft tissues? A systematic review.",
    abstract = "Objectives: To examine the effect of thermal agents on the range of movement (ROM) and mechanical properties in soft tissue and to discuss their clinical relevance.Data Sources: Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2011 using Medical Subjects Headings and key words. We also undertook related articles searches and read referencelists of all incoming articles. Study Selection: Studies involving human participants describing the effects of thermal interventions on ROM and/or mechanical properties in soft tissue. Two reviewers independently screened studies against eligibility criteria.Data Extraction: Data were extracted independently by 2 review authors using a customized form. Methodologic quality was also assessed by 2 authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.Data Synthesis: Thirty-six studies, comprising a total of 1301 healthy participants, satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was a high risk of bias across all studies. Meta-analyses were not undertaken because of clinical heterogeneity; however, effect sizes were calculated. There wereconflicting data on the effect of cold on joint ROM, accessory joint movement, and passive stiffness. There was limited evidence to determine whether acute cold applications enhance the effects of stretching, and further evidence is required. There was evidence that heat increases ROM, and a combination of heat and stretching is more effective than stretching alone.Conclusions: Heat is an effective adjunct to developmental and therapeutic stretching techniques and should be the treatment of choice for enhancing ROM in a clinical or sporting setting. The effects of heat or ice on other important mechanical properties (eg, passive stiffness) remainequivocal and should be the focus of future study.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:149-63",
    author = "CM Bleakley and JT Costello",
    note = "Reference text: 1. Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft tissue injury: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:251-61. 2. Woods K, Bishop P, Jones E. Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Med 2007;37:1089-99. 3. Bleakley CM, Davison GW. What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2009;44:179-87. 4. Costello JT, Algar LA, Donnelly AE. Effects of whole body cryotherapy (_110°C) on proprioception and muscle soreness. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2012;22:190-8. 5. Costello JT, Donnelly AE. Effects of cold water immersion on knee joint position sense in healthy volunteers. J Sports Sci 2011;29:449-56. 6. Ranalli GF, DeMartini JK, Casa DJ, McDermott BP, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Effect of body cooling on subsequent aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 2010;24:3488-96. 7. Duffield R, Green R, Castle P, Maxwell N. Precooling can prevent the reduction of self-paced exercise intensity in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:577-84. 8. Pietrosimone BG, Ingersoll CD. Focal knee joint cooling increases the quadriceps central activation ratio. J Sports Sci 2009;27:873-9. 9. Costello JT, Donnelly AE. Cryotherapy and joint position sense in healthy participants: a systematic review. J Athl Train 2010;45:306-16. 10. Bleakley CM, Costello JT, Glasgow PD. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance. Sports Med 2012;42:69-87. 11. Racinais S, Oksa J. Temperature and neuromuscular function. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20(Suppl 3):1-18. 12. Bass CR, Planchak CJ, Salzar RS, et al. The temperature-dependent viscoelasticity of porcine lumbar spine ligaments. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007;32:E436-42. 13. Huang CY, Wang VM, Flatow EL, Mow VC. Temperature-dependent viscoelastic properties of the human supraspinatus tendon. J Biomech 2009;42:546-9. 14. Mutungi G, Ranatunga KW. Temperature-dependent changes in the viscoelasticity of intact resting mammalian (rat) fast and slow twitch muscle fibres. J Physiol 1998;508:253-65. 15. Noonan TJ, Best TM, Seaber AV, Garrett WE Jr. Thermal effects on skeletal muscle tensile behaviour. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:517-22. 16. Walker P, Amstutz HC, Rubinfeld M. Canine tendon studies, II: biomechanical evaluation of normal and regrown canine tendons. J Biomed Mater Res 1976;10:61-76. 17. Wang JC, Kabo JM, Tsou PM, Halevi L, Shamie AN. The effect of uniform heating on the biomechanical properties of the intervertebral disc in a porcine model. Spine J 2005;5:64-70. 18. Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne AC. Assessing risk of bias in included studies. Section 8.5. In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. Available at: http://www.cochranehandbook. org. Accessed July 5, 2011. 19. Aijaz Y, Chaudhary P, Quddus N. Ultrasound and prolonged long duration stretching increase triceps surae muscle extensibility more than identical stretching alone. Ind J Physiother Occup Ther 2007;1:11-8. 20. Akbari A, Moodi H, Moein AA, Nazok R. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound and duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group on the passive knee extension. J Med Sci 2006;6:968-73. 21. Arguello EM. The effect of focal cooling on dynamic neuromuscular control and knee biomechanics [thesis]. Tallahassee: College of Human Sciences, Florida State University; 2009. 22. Benoit TG, Martin DE, Perrin DH. Hot and cold whirlpool treatments and knee joint laxity. J Athl Train 1996;31:242-4. 23. Brodowicz GR, Welsh R, Wallis J. Comparison of stretching with ice, stretching with heat, or stretching alone on hamstring flexibility. J Athl Train 1996;31:324-7. 24. Brucker JB, Knight KL, Rubley MD, Draper DO. An 18-day stretching regimen, with or without pulsed, shortwave diathermy, and ankle dorsiflexion after 3 weeks. J Athl Train 2005;40:276-80. 25. Burke DG, Holt LE, Rasmussen R, MacKinnon NC, Vossen JF, Pelham TW. Effects of hot or cold water immersion and modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility exercise on hamstring length. J Athl Train 2001;36:16-9. 26. Cornelius W, Ebrahim K, Watson J, Hill D. The effects of cold application and modified PNF stretching techniques on hip joint flexibility in college males. Res Q Exerc Sport 1992;63:311-4. 27. Cosgray NA, Lawrance SE, Mestrich JD, Martin SE, Whalen RL. Effect of heat modalities on hamstring length: a comparison of pneumatherm, moist heat pack, and a control. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004;34:377-84. 28. Demura S, Noguchi T, Matsuzawa J. Comparison in the effect of linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation and light exercise on shoulder joint flexibility. Clin J Sport Med 2006;16:293-7. 29. Draper DO, Anderson C, Schulthies SS, Ricard MD. Immediate and residual changes in dorsiflexion range of motion using an ultrasound heat and stretch routine. J Athl Train 1998;33:141-4. 30. Draper DO, Miner L, Knight KL, Ricard MD. The carry-over effects of diathermy and stretching in developing hamstring flexibility. J Athl Train 31. Draper DO, Castro JL, Feland B, Schulthies S, Eggett D. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004;34:13-20. 32. Funk D, Swank A, Adams KJ, Treolo D. Efficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring flexibility. J Strength Cond Res 2001;15:123-6. 33. Halkovich LR, PersoniusWJ, ClamannHP,NewtonRA. Effect of Fluori- Methane{\circledR} spray on passive hip flexion. Phys Ther 1981;61:185-9. 34. Henricson A, Fredriksson K, Persson I, Pereira R, Rostedt Y, Westlin N. The effect of heat and stretching on the range of hip motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1984;6:110-5. 35. Kain J, Martorello L, Swanson E, Sego S. Comparison of an indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique and a hot pack for increasing range of motion. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2011;15:63-7. 36. Knight CA, Rutledge CR, Cox ME, Acosta M, Hall SJ. Effect of superficial heat, deep heat, and active exercise warm-up on the extensibility of the plantar flexors. Phys Ther 2001;81:1206-14. 37. Kubo K, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Effects of cold and hot water immersion on the mechanical properties of human muscle and tendon in vivo. Clin Biomech 2005;20:291-300. 38. Lentell G, Hetherington T, Eagan J, Morgan M. The use of thermal agents to influence the effectiveness of a low-load prolonged stretch. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16:200-7. 39. Melnyk M, Faist M, Claes L, Friemert B. Therapeutic cooling: no effect on hamstring reflexes and knee stability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38:1329-34. 40. Minton J. A comparison of thermotherapy and cryotherapy in enhancing supine, extended-leg, hip flexion. J Athl Train 1993;28: 172-6. 41. Muraoka T, Omuro K, Wakahara T, et al. Effects of muscle cooling on the stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo. Cells Tissues Organs 2007;187:152-60. 42. Newton RA. Effects of vapocoolants on passive hip flexion in healthy subjects. Phys Ther 1985;65:1034-6. 43. Patterson SM, Udermann BE, Doberstein ST, Reineke DM. The effects of cold whirlpool on power, speed, agility, and range of motion. J Sports Sci Med 2008;7:387-94. 44. Peres SE, Draper DO, Knight KL, Ricard MD. Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsiflexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy. J Athl Train 2002;37:43-50. 45. Price R, Lehmann J. Influence of muscle cooling on the viscoelastic response of the human ankle to sinusoidal displacements. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71:745-8. 46. Rancour JL, Terry ME, Holmes C, Cipriani DJ. Superficial precooling on a 4-week static stretching regimen. Sports Health Multidisc Appr 2010;2:433-6. 47. Reed B, Ashikaga T. The effects of heating with ultrasound on knee joint displacement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1997;26:131-7. 48. Reed B, Ashikaga T, Fleming B, Zimny N. Effects of ultrasound and stretch on knee ligament extensibility. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2000;30:341-7. 49. Robertson VJ, Ward AR, Jung P. The effect of heat on tissue extensibility: a comparison of deep and superficial heating. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:819-25. 50. Sakulsriprasert P, Vongsirinavarat M, Thammajaree C, Khoblueng D, Sunthornwiriyawong K. Effect of superficial heating duration on plantarflexor extensibility. Songklanagarind Med J 2011;28:295-304. 51. Sawyer PC, Uhl TL, Mattacola CG, Johnson DL, Yates JW. Effects of moist heat on hamstring flexibility and muscle temperature. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:285-90. 52. Taylor BF, Waring CA, Brashear T. The effects of therapeutic application of heat or cold followed by static stretch on hamstring muscle length. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1995;21:283-6. 53. Uchio Y, Ochi M, Fujihara A, Adachi N, Iwasa J, Sakai Y. Cryotherapy influences joint laxity and position sense of the healthy knee joint. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:131-5. 54. Wessling KC, DeVane DA, Hylton CR. Effects of static stretch versus static stretch and ultrasound combined on triceps surae muscle extensibility in healthy women. Phys Ther 1987;67:674-9. 55. Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG. Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. Section 9.6.5 In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. Available at: http://www.cochranehandbook. org. Accessed July 20, 2011. 56. Brosseau L, Tousignant M, Budd J, et al. Intratester and intertester reliability and criterion validity of the parallelogram and universal goniometers for active knee flexion in healthy subjects. Physiother Res Int 1997;2:150-66. 57. Brosseau L, Balmer S, Tousignant M, et al. Intra- and intertester reliability and criterion validity of the parallelogram and universal goniometers for measuring maximum active knee flexion and extension of patients with knee restrictions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82:396-402. 58. Kolber MJ, Fuller C, Marshall J, Wright A, Hanney WJ. The reliability and concurrent validity of scapular plane shoulder elevation measurements using a digital inclinometer and goniometer. Physiother Theory Pract 2012;28:161-8. 59. Ben M, Harvey LA. Regular stretch does not increase muscle extensibility: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010; 20:136-44. 60. Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, S{\o}rensen H, Kjaer M. A mechanism for altered flexibility in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 1996;497:291-8. 61. Weppler CH, Magnusson SP. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation. Phys Ther 2010; 90:438-49. 62. Petrofsky JS, Laymon M. Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality. J Med Eng Technol (England) 2009;33: 337-48. 63. Draper DO, Ricard MD. Rate of temperature decay in human muscle following 3MHz ultrasound: the stretching window revealed. J Athl Train 1995;30:304-7. 64. Garrett C, Draper DO, Knight KL. Heat distribution in the lower leg from pulsed short-wave diathermy and ultrasound treatments. J Athl Train 2000;35:50-6. 65. McHugh MP, Cosgrave CH. To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20:169-81. 66. Witvrouw E, Mahieu N, Daneels L, McNair P. The role of stretching in tendon injuries. Br J Sports Med 2007;41:224-6.",
    year = "2013",
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    doi = "10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.023",
    language = "English",
    volume = "94",
    pages = "149--163",
    journal = "Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation",
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    }

    Do thermal agents affect range of movement and mechanical properties in soft tissues? A systematic review. / Bleakley, CM; Costello, JT.

    In: Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, Vol. 94, No. 1, 01.2013, p. 149-163.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Do thermal agents affect range of movement and mechanical properties in soft tissues? A systematic review.

    AU - Bleakley, CM

    AU - Costello, JT

    N1 - Reference text: 1. Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft tissue injury: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:251-61. 2. Woods K, Bishop P, Jones E. Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Med 2007;37:1089-99. 3. Bleakley CM, Davison GW. What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2009;44:179-87. 4. Costello JT, Algar LA, Donnelly AE. Effects of whole body cryotherapy (_110°C) on proprioception and muscle soreness. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2012;22:190-8. 5. Costello JT, Donnelly AE. Effects of cold water immersion on knee joint position sense in healthy volunteers. J Sports Sci 2011;29:449-56. 6. Ranalli GF, DeMartini JK, Casa DJ, McDermott BP, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Effect of body cooling on subsequent aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 2010;24:3488-96. 7. Duffield R, Green R, Castle P, Maxwell N. Precooling can prevent the reduction of self-paced exercise intensity in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:577-84. 8. Pietrosimone BG, Ingersoll CD. Focal knee joint cooling increases the quadriceps central activation ratio. J Sports Sci 2009;27:873-9. 9. Costello JT, Donnelly AE. Cryotherapy and joint position sense in healthy participants: a systematic review. J Athl Train 2010;45:306-16. 10. Bleakley CM, Costello JT, Glasgow PD. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance. Sports Med 2012;42:69-87. 11. Racinais S, Oksa J. Temperature and neuromuscular function. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20(Suppl 3):1-18. 12. Bass CR, Planchak CJ, Salzar RS, et al. The temperature-dependent viscoelasticity of porcine lumbar spine ligaments. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007;32:E436-42. 13. Huang CY, Wang VM, Flatow EL, Mow VC. Temperature-dependent viscoelastic properties of the human supraspinatus tendon. J Biomech 2009;42:546-9. 14. Mutungi G, Ranatunga KW. Temperature-dependent changes in the viscoelasticity of intact resting mammalian (rat) fast and slow twitch muscle fibres. J Physiol 1998;508:253-65. 15. Noonan TJ, Best TM, Seaber AV, Garrett WE Jr. Thermal effects on skeletal muscle tensile behaviour. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:517-22. 16. Walker P, Amstutz HC, Rubinfeld M. Canine tendon studies, II: biomechanical evaluation of normal and regrown canine tendons. J Biomed Mater Res 1976;10:61-76. 17. Wang JC, Kabo JM, Tsou PM, Halevi L, Shamie AN. The effect of uniform heating on the biomechanical properties of the intervertebral disc in a porcine model. Spine J 2005;5:64-70. 18. Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne AC. Assessing risk of bias in included studies. Section 8.5. In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. Available at: http://www.cochranehandbook. org. Accessed July 5, 2011. 19. Aijaz Y, Chaudhary P, Quddus N. Ultrasound and prolonged long duration stretching increase triceps surae muscle extensibility more than identical stretching alone. Ind J Physiother Occup Ther 2007;1:11-8. 20. Akbari A, Moodi H, Moein AA, Nazok R. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound and duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group on the passive knee extension. J Med Sci 2006;6:968-73. 21. Arguello EM. The effect of focal cooling on dynamic neuromuscular control and knee biomechanics [thesis]. Tallahassee: College of Human Sciences, Florida State University; 2009. 22. Benoit TG, Martin DE, Perrin DH. Hot and cold whirlpool treatments and knee joint laxity. J Athl Train 1996;31:242-4. 23. Brodowicz GR, Welsh R, Wallis J. Comparison of stretching with ice, stretching with heat, or stretching alone on hamstring flexibility. J Athl Train 1996;31:324-7. 24. Brucker JB, Knight KL, Rubley MD, Draper DO. An 18-day stretching regimen, with or without pulsed, shortwave diathermy, and ankle dorsiflexion after 3 weeks. J Athl Train 2005;40:276-80. 25. Burke DG, Holt LE, Rasmussen R, MacKinnon NC, Vossen JF, Pelham TW. Effects of hot or cold water immersion and modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility exercise on hamstring length. J Athl Train 2001;36:16-9. 26. Cornelius W, Ebrahim K, Watson J, Hill D. The effects of cold application and modified PNF stretching techniques on hip joint flexibility in college males. Res Q Exerc Sport 1992;63:311-4. 27. Cosgray NA, Lawrance SE, Mestrich JD, Martin SE, Whalen RL. Effect of heat modalities on hamstring length: a comparison of pneumatherm, moist heat pack, and a control. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004;34:377-84. 28. Demura S, Noguchi T, Matsuzawa J. Comparison in the effect of linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation and light exercise on shoulder joint flexibility. Clin J Sport Med 2006;16:293-7. 29. Draper DO, Anderson C, Schulthies SS, Ricard MD. Immediate and residual changes in dorsiflexion range of motion using an ultrasound heat and stretch routine. J Athl Train 1998;33:141-4. 30. Draper DO, Miner L, Knight KL, Ricard MD. The carry-over effects of diathermy and stretching in developing hamstring flexibility. J Athl Train 31. Draper DO, Castro JL, Feland B, Schulthies S, Eggett D. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004;34:13-20. 32. Funk D, Swank A, Adams KJ, Treolo D. Efficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring flexibility. J Strength Cond Res 2001;15:123-6. 33. Halkovich LR, PersoniusWJ, ClamannHP,NewtonRA. Effect of Fluori- Methane® spray on passive hip flexion. Phys Ther 1981;61:185-9. 34. Henricson A, Fredriksson K, Persson I, Pereira R, Rostedt Y, Westlin N. The effect of heat and stretching on the range of hip motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1984;6:110-5. 35. Kain J, Martorello L, Swanson E, Sego S. Comparison of an indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique and a hot pack for increasing range of motion. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2011;15:63-7. 36. Knight CA, Rutledge CR, Cox ME, Acosta M, Hall SJ. Effect of superficial heat, deep heat, and active exercise warm-up on the extensibility of the plantar flexors. Phys Ther 2001;81:1206-14. 37. Kubo K, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Effects of cold and hot water immersion on the mechanical properties of human muscle and tendon in vivo. Clin Biomech 2005;20:291-300. 38. Lentell G, Hetherington T, Eagan J, Morgan M. The use of thermal agents to influence the effectiveness of a low-load prolonged stretch. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16:200-7. 39. Melnyk M, Faist M, Claes L, Friemert B. Therapeutic cooling: no effect on hamstring reflexes and knee stability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38:1329-34. 40. Minton J. A comparison of thermotherapy and cryotherapy in enhancing supine, extended-leg, hip flexion. J Athl Train 1993;28: 172-6. 41. Muraoka T, Omuro K, Wakahara T, et al. Effects of muscle cooling on the stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo. Cells Tissues Organs 2007;187:152-60. 42. Newton RA. Effects of vapocoolants on passive hip flexion in healthy subjects. Phys Ther 1985;65:1034-6. 43. Patterson SM, Udermann BE, Doberstein ST, Reineke DM. The effects of cold whirlpool on power, speed, agility, and range of motion. J Sports Sci Med 2008;7:387-94. 44. Peres SE, Draper DO, Knight KL, Ricard MD. Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsiflexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy. J Athl Train 2002;37:43-50. 45. Price R, Lehmann J. Influence of muscle cooling on the viscoelastic response of the human ankle to sinusoidal displacements. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71:745-8. 46. Rancour JL, Terry ME, Holmes C, Cipriani DJ. Superficial precooling on a 4-week static stretching regimen. Sports Health Multidisc Appr 2010;2:433-6. 47. Reed B, Ashikaga T. The effects of heating with ultrasound on knee joint displacement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1997;26:131-7. 48. Reed B, Ashikaga T, Fleming B, Zimny N. Effects of ultrasound and stretch on knee ligament extensibility. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2000;30:341-7. 49. Robertson VJ, Ward AR, Jung P. The effect of heat on tissue extensibility: a comparison of deep and superficial heating. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:819-25. 50. Sakulsriprasert P, Vongsirinavarat M, Thammajaree C, Khoblueng D, Sunthornwiriyawong K. Effect of superficial heating duration on plantarflexor extensibility. Songklanagarind Med J 2011;28:295-304. 51. Sawyer PC, Uhl TL, Mattacola CG, Johnson DL, Yates JW. Effects of moist heat on hamstring flexibility and muscle temperature. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:285-90. 52. Taylor BF, Waring CA, Brashear T. The effects of therapeutic application of heat or cold followed by static stretch on hamstring muscle length. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1995;21:283-6. 53. Uchio Y, Ochi M, Fujihara A, Adachi N, Iwasa J, Sakai Y. Cryotherapy influences joint laxity and position sense of the healthy knee joint. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:131-5. 54. Wessling KC, DeVane DA, Hylton CR. Effects of static stretch versus static stretch and ultrasound combined on triceps surae muscle extensibility in healthy women. Phys Ther 1987;67:674-9. 55. Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG. Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. Section 9.6.5 In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. Available at: http://www.cochranehandbook. org. Accessed July 20, 2011. 56. Brosseau L, Tousignant M, Budd J, et al. Intratester and intertester reliability and criterion validity of the parallelogram and universal goniometers for active knee flexion in healthy subjects. Physiother Res Int 1997;2:150-66. 57. Brosseau L, Balmer S, Tousignant M, et al. Intra- and intertester reliability and criterion validity of the parallelogram and universal goniometers for measuring maximum active knee flexion and extension of patients with knee restrictions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82:396-402. 58. Kolber MJ, Fuller C, Marshall J, Wright A, Hanney WJ. The reliability and concurrent validity of scapular plane shoulder elevation measurements using a digital inclinometer and goniometer. Physiother Theory Pract 2012;28:161-8. 59. Ben M, Harvey LA. Regular stretch does not increase muscle extensibility: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010; 20:136-44. 60. Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, Sørensen H, Kjaer M. A mechanism for altered flexibility in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 1996;497:291-8. 61. Weppler CH, Magnusson SP. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation. Phys Ther 2010; 90:438-49. 62. Petrofsky JS, Laymon M. Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality. J Med Eng Technol (England) 2009;33: 337-48. 63. Draper DO, Ricard MD. Rate of temperature decay in human muscle following 3MHz ultrasound: the stretching window revealed. J Athl Train 1995;30:304-7. 64. Garrett C, Draper DO, Knight KL. Heat distribution in the lower leg from pulsed short-wave diathermy and ultrasound treatments. J Athl Train 2000;35:50-6. 65. McHugh MP, Cosgrave CH. To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20:169-81. 66. Witvrouw E, Mahieu N, Daneels L, McNair P. The role of stretching in tendon injuries. Br J Sports Med 2007;41:224-6.

    PY - 2013/1

    Y1 - 2013/1

    N2 - Objectives: To examine the effect of thermal agents on the range of movement (ROM) and mechanical properties in soft tissue and to discuss their clinical relevance.Data Sources: Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2011 using Medical Subjects Headings and key words. We also undertook related articles searches and read referencelists of all incoming articles. Study Selection: Studies involving human participants describing the effects of thermal interventions on ROM and/or mechanical properties in soft tissue. Two reviewers independently screened studies against eligibility criteria.Data Extraction: Data were extracted independently by 2 review authors using a customized form. Methodologic quality was also assessed by 2 authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.Data Synthesis: Thirty-six studies, comprising a total of 1301 healthy participants, satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was a high risk of bias across all studies. Meta-analyses were not undertaken because of clinical heterogeneity; however, effect sizes were calculated. There wereconflicting data on the effect of cold on joint ROM, accessory joint movement, and passive stiffness. There was limited evidence to determine whether acute cold applications enhance the effects of stretching, and further evidence is required. There was evidence that heat increases ROM, and a combination of heat and stretching is more effective than stretching alone.Conclusions: Heat is an effective adjunct to developmental and therapeutic stretching techniques and should be the treatment of choice for enhancing ROM in a clinical or sporting setting. The effects of heat or ice on other important mechanical properties (eg, passive stiffness) remainequivocal and should be the focus of future study.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:149-63

    AB - Objectives: To examine the effect of thermal agents on the range of movement (ROM) and mechanical properties in soft tissue and to discuss their clinical relevance.Data Sources: Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2011 using Medical Subjects Headings and key words. We also undertook related articles searches and read referencelists of all incoming articles. Study Selection: Studies involving human participants describing the effects of thermal interventions on ROM and/or mechanical properties in soft tissue. Two reviewers independently screened studies against eligibility criteria.Data Extraction: Data were extracted independently by 2 review authors using a customized form. Methodologic quality was also assessed by 2 authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.Data Synthesis: Thirty-six studies, comprising a total of 1301 healthy participants, satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was a high risk of bias across all studies. Meta-analyses were not undertaken because of clinical heterogeneity; however, effect sizes were calculated. There wereconflicting data on the effect of cold on joint ROM, accessory joint movement, and passive stiffness. There was limited evidence to determine whether acute cold applications enhance the effects of stretching, and further evidence is required. There was evidence that heat increases ROM, and a combination of heat and stretching is more effective than stretching alone.Conclusions: Heat is an effective adjunct to developmental and therapeutic stretching techniques and should be the treatment of choice for enhancing ROM in a clinical or sporting setting. The effects of heat or ice on other important mechanical properties (eg, passive stiffness) remainequivocal and should be the focus of future study.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:149-63

    U2 - 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.023

    DO - 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.023

    M3 - Article

    VL - 94

    SP - 149

    EP - 163

    JO - Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    T2 - Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    JF - Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    SN - 0003-9993

    IS - 1

    ER -