Do Swimmers Conform to Criterion Speed during Pace-Controlled Swimming in a 25 m Pool Using a Visual Light Pacer?

Tomohiro Gonjo, Carla McCabe, Simon Coleman, Susana Soare, Ricardo J. Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ross Sanders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether swimmers follow the instructed speed (v target ) accurately with the aid of a commercial visual light pacer during front crawl and backstroke swimming in a 25 m pool. Ten male swimmers performed 50 m front crawl and backstroke at different speeds (controlled by a visual light pacer) in a 25 m pool. The mean speed during the 50 m swimming (v S ) was quantified from the time measured by a stopwatch. The mean speed of the centre of mass during a stroke cycle in the middle of the pool (v COM ) was calculated from three-dimensional coordinates obtained from Direct Linear Transformation of two-dimensional digitised coordinates of 19 segment endpoints for each of six cameras. Swimmers achieved accurate v S in front crawl and backstroke (ICC = 0.972 and 0.978, respectively). However, v COM for the single mid-pool sample had lower correlations with v target (ICC = 0.781 and 0.681, respectively). In backstroke, v COM was slower by 4.1–5.1% than v target . However, this was not the case in front crawl (1.0–2.7%). With the use of a visual light pacer, swimmers can achieve accurate mean speed overall but are less able to achieve the target speed stroke by stroke.

LanguageEnglish
JournalSports Biomechanics
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Stroke
Light

Keywords

  • aquatic locomotion
  • backstroke
  • front crawl
  • pacing

Cite this

Gonjo, Tomohiro ; McCabe, Carla ; Coleman, Simon ; Soare, Susana ; Fernandes, Ricardo J. ; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo ; Sanders, Ross. / Do Swimmers Conform to Criterion Speed during Pace-Controlled Swimming in a 25 m Pool Using a Visual Light Pacer?. In: Sports Biomechanics. 2019.
@article{e01d157c068d4d2db536ac4c5aad5e78,
title = "Do Swimmers Conform to Criterion Speed during Pace-Controlled Swimming in a 25 m Pool Using a Visual Light Pacer?",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to investigate whether swimmers follow the instructed speed (v target ) accurately with the aid of a commercial visual light pacer during front crawl and backstroke swimming in a 25 m pool. Ten male swimmers performed 50 m front crawl and backstroke at different speeds (controlled by a visual light pacer) in a 25 m pool. The mean speed during the 50 m swimming (v S ) was quantified from the time measured by a stopwatch. The mean speed of the centre of mass during a stroke cycle in the middle of the pool (v COM ) was calculated from three-dimensional coordinates obtained from Direct Linear Transformation of two-dimensional digitised coordinates of 19 segment endpoints for each of six cameras. Swimmers achieved accurate v S in front crawl and backstroke (ICC = 0.972 and 0.978, respectively). However, v COM for the single mid-pool sample had lower correlations with v target (ICC = 0.781 and 0.681, respectively). In backstroke, v COM was slower by 4.1–5.1{\%} than v target . However, this was not the case in front crawl (1.0–2.7{\%}). With the use of a visual light pacer, swimmers can achieve accurate mean speed overall but are less able to achieve the target speed stroke by stroke.",
keywords = "aquatic locomotion, backstroke, front crawl, pacing",
author = "Tomohiro Gonjo and Carla McCabe and Simon Coleman and Susana Soare and Fernandes, {Ricardo J.} and Vilas-Boas, {Jo{\~a}o Paulo} and Ross Sanders",
note = "The manuscript was not uploaded within three months of Acceptance or Publication dates but the output was made Open Access by a co-author at Edinburgh University. The evidence of the compliance has been uploaded to the 'Other Files' field.",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1080/14763141.2019.1572781",
language = "English",
journal = "Sports Biomechanics",
issn = "1476-3141",

}

Do Swimmers Conform to Criterion Speed during Pace-Controlled Swimming in a 25 m Pool Using a Visual Light Pacer? / Gonjo, Tomohiro; McCabe, Carla; Coleman, Simon; Soare, Susana ; Fernandes, Ricardo J.; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo ; Sanders, Ross.

In: Sports Biomechanics, 20.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Do Swimmers Conform to Criterion Speed during Pace-Controlled Swimming in a 25 m Pool Using a Visual Light Pacer?

AU - Gonjo, Tomohiro

AU - McCabe, Carla

AU - Coleman, Simon

AU - Soare, Susana

AU - Fernandes, Ricardo J.

AU - Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

AU - Sanders, Ross

N1 - The manuscript was not uploaded within three months of Acceptance or Publication dates but the output was made Open Access by a co-author at Edinburgh University. The evidence of the compliance has been uploaded to the 'Other Files' field.

PY - 2019/3/20

Y1 - 2019/3/20

N2 - The purpose of this study was to investigate whether swimmers follow the instructed speed (v target ) accurately with the aid of a commercial visual light pacer during front crawl and backstroke swimming in a 25 m pool. Ten male swimmers performed 50 m front crawl and backstroke at different speeds (controlled by a visual light pacer) in a 25 m pool. The mean speed during the 50 m swimming (v S ) was quantified from the time measured by a stopwatch. The mean speed of the centre of mass during a stroke cycle in the middle of the pool (v COM ) was calculated from three-dimensional coordinates obtained from Direct Linear Transformation of two-dimensional digitised coordinates of 19 segment endpoints for each of six cameras. Swimmers achieved accurate v S in front crawl and backstroke (ICC = 0.972 and 0.978, respectively). However, v COM for the single mid-pool sample had lower correlations with v target (ICC = 0.781 and 0.681, respectively). In backstroke, v COM was slower by 4.1–5.1% than v target . However, this was not the case in front crawl (1.0–2.7%). With the use of a visual light pacer, swimmers can achieve accurate mean speed overall but are less able to achieve the target speed stroke by stroke.

AB - The purpose of this study was to investigate whether swimmers follow the instructed speed (v target ) accurately with the aid of a commercial visual light pacer during front crawl and backstroke swimming in a 25 m pool. Ten male swimmers performed 50 m front crawl and backstroke at different speeds (controlled by a visual light pacer) in a 25 m pool. The mean speed during the 50 m swimming (v S ) was quantified from the time measured by a stopwatch. The mean speed of the centre of mass during a stroke cycle in the middle of the pool (v COM ) was calculated from three-dimensional coordinates obtained from Direct Linear Transformation of two-dimensional digitised coordinates of 19 segment endpoints for each of six cameras. Swimmers achieved accurate v S in front crawl and backstroke (ICC = 0.972 and 0.978, respectively). However, v COM for the single mid-pool sample had lower correlations with v target (ICC = 0.781 and 0.681, respectively). In backstroke, v COM was slower by 4.1–5.1% than v target . However, this was not the case in front crawl (1.0–2.7%). With the use of a visual light pacer, swimmers can achieve accurate mean speed overall but are less able to achieve the target speed stroke by stroke.

KW - aquatic locomotion

KW - backstroke

KW - front crawl

KW - pacing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063147656&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - https://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/do-swimmers-conform-to-criterion-speed-during-pacecontrolled-swimming-in-a-25-m-pool-using-a-visual-light-pacer(ce67ced9-52dd-451e-8ce6-702d0eaf3f71).html

U2 - 10.1080/14763141.2019.1572781

DO - 10.1080/14763141.2019.1572781

M3 - Article

JO - Sports Biomechanics

T2 - Sports Biomechanics

JF - Sports Biomechanics

SN - 1476-3141

ER -