Do Gender and Directness of Trauma Exposure Moderate PTSD's Latent Structure?

Shiela Frankfurt, Cherie Armour, Ateka Contactor, Jon Elhai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
182 Downloads (Pure)


The PTSD diagnosis and latent structure were substantially revised in the transition from DSM-IV to DSM-5. However, three alternative models (i.e., anhedonia model, externalizing behavior model, and hybrid model) of PTSD fit the DSM-5 symptom criteria better than the DSM-5 factor model. Thus, the psychometric performance of the DSM-5 and alternative models’ PTSD factor structure needs to be critically evaluated. The current study examined whether gender or trauma directness (i.e., direct or indirect trauma exposure) moderates the PTSD latent structure when using the DSM-5 or alternative models. Model performance was evaluated with measurement invariance testing procedures on a large undergraduate sample (n=455). Gender and trauma directness moderated the DSM-5 PTSD and externalizing behavior model and did not moderate the anhedonia and hybrid models' latent structure. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-370
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Nov 2016


  • PTSD
  • Latent Structure
  • Moderation
  • Gender Differences


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