DNA Damage Following Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background Exercise is widely recognised for its health enhancing benefits. Despite this, an overproduction of reactiveoxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), outstripping antioxidant defence mechanisms, can lead to a state of (chronic) oxidative stress. DNA is a vulnerable target of RONS attack and, if left unrepaired, DNA damage may cause genetic instability. Objective This meta-analysis aimed to systematically investigate and assess the overall effect of studies reporting DNA damage following acute aerobic exercise. Methods Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus were searched until April 2019. Outcomes included (1) multiple time-points (TPs) of measuring DNA damage post-exercise, (2) two different quantification methods (cometassay and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), and (3) protocols of high intensity (≥ 75% of maximum rate of oxygen consumption;VO2-max) and long distance (≥ 42 km). Results Literature search identified 4316 non-duplicate records of which 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The evidence was strong, showcasing an increase in DNA damage immediately following acute aerobic exercise with a large-effectsize at TP 0 (0 h) (SMD = 0.875; 95% CI 0.5, 1.25; p < 0.05). When comparing between comet assay and 8-OHdG at TP 0, asignificant difference was observed only when using the comet assay. Finally, when isolating protocols of long-distance and high-intensity exercise, increased DNA damage was only observed in the latter. (SMD = 0.48; 95% CI − 0.16, 1.03; p = 0.15and SMD = 1.18; 95% CI 0.71, 1.65; p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusions A substantial increase in DNA damage occurs immediately following acute aerobic exercise. This increase remains significant between 2 h and 1 day, but not within 5–28 days post-exercise. Such an increase was not observed inprotocols of a long-distance. The relationship between exercise and DNA damage may be explained through the hormesis theory, which is somewhat one-dimensional, and thus limited. The hormesis theory describes how exercise modulates any advantageous or harmful effects mediated through RONS, by increasing DNA oxidation between the two end-points of thecurve: physical inactivity and overtraining. We propose a more intricate approach to explain this relationship: a multi-dimensionalmodel, to develop a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between DNA integrity and exercise.
LanguageEnglish
Pages103-127
Number of pages25
JournalSports Medicine
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Sep 2019

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DNA Damage
Meta-Analysis
Exercise
Hormesis
Comet Assay
Nitrogen
DNA
Insurance Benefits
PubMed
Oxygen Consumption
MEDLINE
Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants

Keywords

  • DNA
  • Exercise
  • meta-analysis
  • Oxidative stress
  • oxidative damage

Cite this

@article{9240fb266c5248deaf641a6f68fd3a1e,
title = "DNA Damage Following Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis",
abstract = "Background Exercise is widely recognised for its health enhancing benefits. Despite this, an overproduction of reactiveoxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), outstripping antioxidant defence mechanisms, can lead to a state of (chronic) oxidative stress. DNA is a vulnerable target of RONS attack and, if left unrepaired, DNA damage may cause genetic instability. Objective This meta-analysis aimed to systematically investigate and assess the overall effect of studies reporting DNA damage following acute aerobic exercise. Methods Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus were searched until April 2019. Outcomes included (1) multiple time-points (TPs) of measuring DNA damage post-exercise, (2) two different quantification methods (cometassay and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), and (3) protocols of high intensity (≥ 75{\%} of maximum rate of oxygen consumption;VO2-max) and long distance (≥ 42 km). Results Literature search identified 4316 non-duplicate records of which 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The evidence was strong, showcasing an increase in DNA damage immediately following acute aerobic exercise with a large-effectsize at TP 0 (0 h) (SMD = 0.875; 95{\%} CI 0.5, 1.25; p < 0.05). When comparing between comet assay and 8-OHdG at TP 0, asignificant difference was observed only when using the comet assay. Finally, when isolating protocols of long-distance and high-intensity exercise, increased DNA damage was only observed in the latter. (SMD = 0.48; 95{\%} CI − 0.16, 1.03; p = 0.15and SMD = 1.18; 95{\%} CI 0.71, 1.65; p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusions A substantial increase in DNA damage occurs immediately following acute aerobic exercise. This increase remains significant between 2 h and 1 day, but not within 5–28 days post-exercise. Such an increase was not observed inprotocols of a long-distance. The relationship between exercise and DNA damage may be explained through the hormesis theory, which is somewhat one-dimensional, and thus limited. The hormesis theory describes how exercise modulates any advantageous or harmful effects mediated through RONS, by increasing DNA oxidation between the two end-points of thecurve: physical inactivity and overtraining. We propose a more intricate approach to explain this relationship: a multi-dimensionalmodel, to develop a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between DNA integrity and exercise.",
keywords = "DNA, Exercise, meta-analysis, Oxidative stress, oxidative damage",
author = "Gareth Davison and CM McClean and Despoina Tryfidou and Michalis Nikolaidis",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
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doi = "10.1007/s40279-019-01181-y",
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DNA Damage Following Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis. / Davison, Gareth; McClean, CM; Tryfidou, Despoina; Nikolaidis, Michalis.

In: Sports Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 1, 16.09.2019, p. 103-127.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - DNA Damage Following Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

AU - Davison, Gareth

AU - McClean, CM

AU - Tryfidou, Despoina

AU - Nikolaidis, Michalis

PY - 2019/9/16

Y1 - 2019/9/16

N2 - Background Exercise is widely recognised for its health enhancing benefits. Despite this, an overproduction of reactiveoxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), outstripping antioxidant defence mechanisms, can lead to a state of (chronic) oxidative stress. DNA is a vulnerable target of RONS attack and, if left unrepaired, DNA damage may cause genetic instability. Objective This meta-analysis aimed to systematically investigate and assess the overall effect of studies reporting DNA damage following acute aerobic exercise. Methods Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus were searched until April 2019. Outcomes included (1) multiple time-points (TPs) of measuring DNA damage post-exercise, (2) two different quantification methods (cometassay and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), and (3) protocols of high intensity (≥ 75% of maximum rate of oxygen consumption;VO2-max) and long distance (≥ 42 km). Results Literature search identified 4316 non-duplicate records of which 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The evidence was strong, showcasing an increase in DNA damage immediately following acute aerobic exercise with a large-effectsize at TP 0 (0 h) (SMD = 0.875; 95% CI 0.5, 1.25; p < 0.05). When comparing between comet assay and 8-OHdG at TP 0, asignificant difference was observed only when using the comet assay. Finally, when isolating protocols of long-distance and high-intensity exercise, increased DNA damage was only observed in the latter. (SMD = 0.48; 95% CI − 0.16, 1.03; p = 0.15and SMD = 1.18; 95% CI 0.71, 1.65; p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusions A substantial increase in DNA damage occurs immediately following acute aerobic exercise. This increase remains significant between 2 h and 1 day, but not within 5–28 days post-exercise. Such an increase was not observed inprotocols of a long-distance. The relationship between exercise and DNA damage may be explained through the hormesis theory, which is somewhat one-dimensional, and thus limited. The hormesis theory describes how exercise modulates any advantageous or harmful effects mediated through RONS, by increasing DNA oxidation between the two end-points of thecurve: physical inactivity and overtraining. We propose a more intricate approach to explain this relationship: a multi-dimensionalmodel, to develop a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between DNA integrity and exercise.

AB - Background Exercise is widely recognised for its health enhancing benefits. Despite this, an overproduction of reactiveoxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), outstripping antioxidant defence mechanisms, can lead to a state of (chronic) oxidative stress. DNA is a vulnerable target of RONS attack and, if left unrepaired, DNA damage may cause genetic instability. Objective This meta-analysis aimed to systematically investigate and assess the overall effect of studies reporting DNA damage following acute aerobic exercise. Methods Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus were searched until April 2019. Outcomes included (1) multiple time-points (TPs) of measuring DNA damage post-exercise, (2) two different quantification methods (cometassay and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), and (3) protocols of high intensity (≥ 75% of maximum rate of oxygen consumption;VO2-max) and long distance (≥ 42 km). Results Literature search identified 4316 non-duplicate records of which 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The evidence was strong, showcasing an increase in DNA damage immediately following acute aerobic exercise with a large-effectsize at TP 0 (0 h) (SMD = 0.875; 95% CI 0.5, 1.25; p < 0.05). When comparing between comet assay and 8-OHdG at TP 0, asignificant difference was observed only when using the comet assay. Finally, when isolating protocols of long-distance and high-intensity exercise, increased DNA damage was only observed in the latter. (SMD = 0.48; 95% CI − 0.16, 1.03; p = 0.15and SMD = 1.18; 95% CI 0.71, 1.65; p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusions A substantial increase in DNA damage occurs immediately following acute aerobic exercise. This increase remains significant between 2 h and 1 day, but not within 5–28 days post-exercise. Such an increase was not observed inprotocols of a long-distance. The relationship between exercise and DNA damage may be explained through the hormesis theory, which is somewhat one-dimensional, and thus limited. The hormesis theory describes how exercise modulates any advantageous or harmful effects mediated through RONS, by increasing DNA oxidation between the two end-points of thecurve: physical inactivity and overtraining. We propose a more intricate approach to explain this relationship: a multi-dimensionalmodel, to develop a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between DNA integrity and exercise.

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KW - Exercise

KW - meta-analysis

KW - Oxidative stress

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JO - Sports Medicine

T2 - Sports Medicine

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