Distributed Generation with Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study

Xinjing Zhang, Haishen Chen, Yujie Xu, Wen Li, Fengjuan He, Huan Guo, Ye Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Due to its relatively high efficiency, Distributed Generation (DG) is widely used to supply energy sources (generally power, heating and cooling) for on-site needs. This, however, presents a challenge to deal with an abrupt increase of electricity demand. To satisfy 100% of electricity demand with a high level dynamic performance energy storage is one of the most promising options for the DG system. In this study a hybrid DG system integrated with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is proposed. Coupled with energy storage the DG system can perform a ‘peak shaving’ function and maintain the power output requirement properly, resulting in a lower core engine power rating and better process efficiency. To carry out technical evaluation the process flow chart is created and process models are developed. The results of simulation are also validated by IET’s CAES experimental data. The results reveal that the hybrid system’s exergy efficiency is 41.5%, and the primary fuel saving ratio is 23.13%. The CAES expander system is operated in a sliding pressure mode, satisfying various load profiles while its exergy efficiency for one day cycle is 64.7%. Compared with conventional DG system, within the hybrid system the core engine size can be downgraded by 35.3%, the fuel saving ratio is 11.06%.
LanguageEnglish
PagesNA
JournalApplied Energy
VolumeNA
Early online date25 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 May 2017

Fingerprint

Distributed power generation
Energy storage
compressed air
Exergy
exergy
Hybrid systems
Electricity
engine
electricity
Engines
Thermal energy
sliding
energy storage
Cooling
Heating
heating
cooling
Compressed air energy storage
simulation

Keywords

  • Distributed generation
  • Energy storage
  • Simulation and experiment
  • Fuel saving
  • Exergy efficiency

Cite this

Zhang, Xinjing ; Chen, Haishen ; Xu, Yujie ; Li, Wen ; He, Fengjuan ; Guo, Huan ; Huang, Ye. / Distributed Generation with Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study. 2017 ; Vol. NA. pp. NA.
@article{ceda5366c54b4aaf9fb97943441f8c79,
title = "Distributed Generation with Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study",
abstract = "Due to its relatively high efficiency, Distributed Generation (DG) is widely used to supply energy sources (generally power, heating and cooling) for on-site needs. This, however, presents a challenge to deal with an abrupt increase of electricity demand. To satisfy 100{\%} of electricity demand with a high level dynamic performance energy storage is one of the most promising options for the DG system. In this study a hybrid DG system integrated with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is proposed. Coupled with energy storage the DG system can perform a ‘peak shaving’ function and maintain the power output requirement properly, resulting in a lower core engine power rating and better process efficiency. To carry out technical evaluation the process flow chart is created and process models are developed. The results of simulation are also validated by IET’s CAES experimental data. The results reveal that the hybrid system’s exergy efficiency is 41.5{\%}, and the primary fuel saving ratio is 23.13{\%}. The CAES expander system is operated in a sliding pressure mode, satisfying various load profiles while its exergy efficiency for one day cycle is 64.7{\%}. Compared with conventional DG system, within the hybrid system the core engine size can be downgraded by 35.3{\%}, the fuel saving ratio is 11.06{\%}.",
keywords = "Distributed generation, Energy storage, Simulation and experiment, Fuel saving, Exergy efficiency",
author = "Xinjing Zhang and Haishen Chen and Yujie Xu and Wen Li and Fengjuan He and Huan Guo and Ye Huang",
note = "Reference text: [1] Cho H, Smith AD, Mago P. Combined cooling, heating and power: A review of performance improvement and optimization. Applied Energy. 2014;136:168-85. [2] Krajacic G, Duic N, Zmijarevic Z, Mathiesen BV, Vucinic AA, da Graca Carvalho M. Planning for a 100{\%} independent energy system based on smart energy storage for integration of renewables and CO2 emissions reduction. Applied Thermal Engineering.31:2073. [3] Colmenar-Santos A, Reino-Rio C, Borge-Diez D, Collado-Fern{\'a}ndez E. Distributed generation: A review of factors that can contribute most to achieve a scenario of DG units embedded in the new distribution networks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;59:1130-48. [4] Caresana F, Pelagalli L, Comodi G, Renzi M. Microturbogas cogeneration systems for distributed generation: Effects of ambient temperature on global performance and components’ behavior. Applied Energy. 2014;124:17-27. [5] Viral R, Khatod DK. Optimal planning of distributed generation systems in distribution system: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2012;16:5146-65. [6] Adefarati T, Bansal RC. Reliability assessment of distribution system with the integration of renewable distributed generation. Applied Energy. 2017;185, Part 1:158-71. [7] EIA. Annual data for 2015 https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861/: U.S. Energy Information Administration; 2016. [8] ETI. Distributed Generation. London: Energy Technologies Institute, UK; 2012. [9] Liu P, Tan Z. How to develop distributed generation in China: In the context of the reformation of electric power system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;66:10-26. [10] Anaya KL, Pollitt MG. Integrating distributed generation: Regulation and trends in three leading countries. Energy Policy. 2015;85:475-86. [11] Ruggiero S, Varho V, Rikkonen P. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers. Energy Policy. 2015;86:433-43. [12] Li Y, Sciacovelli A, Peng X, Radcliffe J, Ding Y. Integrating compressed air energy storage with a diesel engine for electricity generation in isolated areas. Applied Energy. 2016;171:26-36. [13] Ibrahim H, Youn{\`e}s R, Ilinca A, Dimitrova M, Perron J. Study and design of a hybrid wind–diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas. Applied Energy. 2010;87:1749-62. [14] Crespo Del Granado P, Pang Z, Wallace SW. Synergy of smart grids and hybrid distributed generation on the value of energy storage. Applied Energy. 2016;170:476-88. [15] Paska J, Biczel P, Kłos M. Hybrid power systems – An effective way of utilising primary energy sources. Renewable Energy. 2009;34:2414-21. [16] Venkataramani G, Parankusam P, Ramalingam V, Wang J. A review on compressed air energy storage – A pathway for smart grid and polygeneration. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;62:895-907. [17] Bullough C, Gatzen C, Jakiel C, Koller M, Nowi A, Zunft S. Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage for the Integration of Wind Energy. European Wind Energy Conference, EWEC 2004. London, UK2004. p. 8. [18] Tian Y, Zhao CY. A review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications. Applied Energy. 2013;104:538-53. [19] Manchester SC, Swan LG, Groulx D. Regenerative air energy storage for remote wind–diesel micro-grid communities. Applied Energy. 2015;137:490-500. [20] He F, Xu Y, Zhang X, Liu C, Chen H. Hybrid CCHP system combined with compressed air energy storage. International Journal of Energy Research. 2015;39:1807-18. [21] Smith AD, Mago PJ, Fumo N. Benefits of thermal energy storage option combined with CHP system for different commercial building types. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2013;1:3-12. [22] Zakeri B, Syri S. Electrical energy storage systems: A comparative life cycle cost analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015;42:569-96. [23] Salvini C. Techno-Economic Analysis of CAES Systems Integrated into Gas-Steam Combined Plants. Energy Procedia. 2016;101:870-7. [24] Erdinc O, Paterakis NG, Pappi IN, Bakirtzis AG, Catal{\~a}o JPS. A new perspective for sizing of distributed generation and energy storage for smart households under demand response. Applied Energy. 2015;143:26-37. [25] Zhang N, Cai R. Analytical solutions and typical characteristics of part-load performances of single shaft gas turbine and its cogeneration. Energy Conversion and Management. 2002;43:1323-37. [26] Haglind F, Elmegaard B. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Energy. 2009;34:1484-92. [27] Heywood JB. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 1988. [28] Cengel YA, Boles MA. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2006. [29] Zhang X, Xu Y, Xu J, Sheng Y, Zuo Z, Liu J, et al. Study on the performance and optimization of a scroll expander driven by compressed air. Applied Energy. 2017;186, Part 3:347-58. [30] Qiu G, Liu H, Riffat S. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2011;31:3301-7. [31] Kang S, Li H, Liu L, Lei J, Zhang G. Exergy analysis of a novel CHP–GSHP coupling system. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2016;93:308-14. [32] Li H, Fu L, Geng K, Jiang Y. Energy utilization evaluation of CCHP systems. Energy and Buildings. 2006;38:253-7. [33] Raju M, Kumar Khaitan S. Modeling and simulation of compressed air storage in caverns: A case study of the Huntorf plant. Applied Energy. 2012;89:474-81. [34] Kushnir R, Ullmann A, Dayan A. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of compressed air energy storage reservoirs: a review. revce. 2012;28:123-48. [35] Gomri R. Investigation of the potential of application of single effect and multiple effect absorption cooling systems. Energy Conversion and Management. 2010;51:1629-36. [36] Garimella S, Brown AM, Nagavarapu AK. Waste heat driven absorption/vapor-compression cascade refrigeration system for megawatt scale, high-flux, low-temperature cooling. International Journal of Refrigeration. 2011;34:1776-85. [37] Zhou G, Liu R, Liu W, Liu G, Dong S, Xu X. Combustion Characteristics of Common Rail Diesel Engine Under Part Load Operating Conditions at High Altitude. Journal of Combustion Science and Technology. 2014;20:5. [38] Yao E, Wang H, Wang L, Xi G, Mar{\'e}chal F. Thermo-economic optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system based on small-scale compressed air energy storage. Energy Conversion and Management. 2016;118:377-86. [39] Comodi G, Carducci F, Sze JY, Balamurugan N, Romagnoli A. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies. Energy. 2017;121:676-94. [40] Corgnale C, Hardy B, Motyka T, Zidan R, Teprovich J, Peters B. Screening analysis of metal hydride based thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power plants. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2014;38:821-33.",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.063",
language = "English",
volume = "NA",
pages = "NA",

}

Distributed Generation with Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study. / Zhang, Xinjing; Chen, Haishen; Xu, Yujie; Li, Wen; He, Fengjuan; Guo, Huan; Huang, Ye.

Vol. NA, 25.05.2017, p. NA.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Distributed Generation with Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study

AU - Zhang, Xinjing

AU - Chen, Haishen

AU - Xu, Yujie

AU - Li, Wen

AU - He, Fengjuan

AU - Guo, Huan

AU - Huang, Ye

N1 - Reference text: [1] Cho H, Smith AD, Mago P. Combined cooling, heating and power: A review of performance improvement and optimization. Applied Energy. 2014;136:168-85. [2] Krajacic G, Duic N, Zmijarevic Z, Mathiesen BV, Vucinic AA, da Graca Carvalho M. Planning for a 100% independent energy system based on smart energy storage for integration of renewables and CO2 emissions reduction. Applied Thermal Engineering.31:2073. [3] Colmenar-Santos A, Reino-Rio C, Borge-Diez D, Collado-Fernández E. Distributed generation: A review of factors that can contribute most to achieve a scenario of DG units embedded in the new distribution networks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;59:1130-48. [4] Caresana F, Pelagalli L, Comodi G, Renzi M. Microturbogas cogeneration systems for distributed generation: Effects of ambient temperature on global performance and components’ behavior. Applied Energy. 2014;124:17-27. [5] Viral R, Khatod DK. Optimal planning of distributed generation systems in distribution system: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2012;16:5146-65. [6] Adefarati T, Bansal RC. Reliability assessment of distribution system with the integration of renewable distributed generation. Applied Energy. 2017;185, Part 1:158-71. [7] EIA. Annual data for 2015 https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861/: U.S. Energy Information Administration; 2016. [8] ETI. Distributed Generation. London: Energy Technologies Institute, UK; 2012. [9] Liu P, Tan Z. How to develop distributed generation in China: In the context of the reformation of electric power system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;66:10-26. [10] Anaya KL, Pollitt MG. Integrating distributed generation: Regulation and trends in three leading countries. Energy Policy. 2015;85:475-86. [11] Ruggiero S, Varho V, Rikkonen P. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers. Energy Policy. 2015;86:433-43. [12] Li Y, Sciacovelli A, Peng X, Radcliffe J, Ding Y. Integrating compressed air energy storage with a diesel engine for electricity generation in isolated areas. Applied Energy. 2016;171:26-36. [13] Ibrahim H, Younès R, Ilinca A, Dimitrova M, Perron J. Study and design of a hybrid wind–diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas. Applied Energy. 2010;87:1749-62. [14] Crespo Del Granado P, Pang Z, Wallace SW. Synergy of smart grids and hybrid distributed generation on the value of energy storage. Applied Energy. 2016;170:476-88. [15] Paska J, Biczel P, Kłos M. Hybrid power systems – An effective way of utilising primary energy sources. Renewable Energy. 2009;34:2414-21. [16] Venkataramani G, Parankusam P, Ramalingam V, Wang J. A review on compressed air energy storage – A pathway for smart grid and polygeneration. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;62:895-907. [17] Bullough C, Gatzen C, Jakiel C, Koller M, Nowi A, Zunft S. Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage for the Integration of Wind Energy. European Wind Energy Conference, EWEC 2004. London, UK2004. p. 8. [18] Tian Y, Zhao CY. A review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications. Applied Energy. 2013;104:538-53. [19] Manchester SC, Swan LG, Groulx D. Regenerative air energy storage for remote wind–diesel micro-grid communities. Applied Energy. 2015;137:490-500. [20] He F, Xu Y, Zhang X, Liu C, Chen H. Hybrid CCHP system combined with compressed air energy storage. International Journal of Energy Research. 2015;39:1807-18. [21] Smith AD, Mago PJ, Fumo N. Benefits of thermal energy storage option combined with CHP system for different commercial building types. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2013;1:3-12. [22] Zakeri B, Syri S. Electrical energy storage systems: A comparative life cycle cost analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015;42:569-96. [23] Salvini C. Techno-Economic Analysis of CAES Systems Integrated into Gas-Steam Combined Plants. Energy Procedia. 2016;101:870-7. [24] Erdinc O, Paterakis NG, Pappi IN, Bakirtzis AG, Catalão JPS. A new perspective for sizing of distributed generation and energy storage for smart households under demand response. Applied Energy. 2015;143:26-37. [25] Zhang N, Cai R. Analytical solutions and typical characteristics of part-load performances of single shaft gas turbine and its cogeneration. Energy Conversion and Management. 2002;43:1323-37. [26] Haglind F, Elmegaard B. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Energy. 2009;34:1484-92. [27] Heywood JB. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 1988. [28] Cengel YA, Boles MA. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2006. [29] Zhang X, Xu Y, Xu J, Sheng Y, Zuo Z, Liu J, et al. Study on the performance and optimization of a scroll expander driven by compressed air. Applied Energy. 2017;186, Part 3:347-58. [30] Qiu G, Liu H, Riffat S. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2011;31:3301-7. [31] Kang S, Li H, Liu L, Lei J, Zhang G. Exergy analysis of a novel CHP–GSHP coupling system. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2016;93:308-14. [32] Li H, Fu L, Geng K, Jiang Y. Energy utilization evaluation of CCHP systems. Energy and Buildings. 2006;38:253-7. [33] Raju M, Kumar Khaitan S. Modeling and simulation of compressed air storage in caverns: A case study of the Huntorf plant. Applied Energy. 2012;89:474-81. [34] Kushnir R, Ullmann A, Dayan A. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of compressed air energy storage reservoirs: a review. revce. 2012;28:123-48. [35] Gomri R. Investigation of the potential of application of single effect and multiple effect absorption cooling systems. Energy Conversion and Management. 2010;51:1629-36. [36] Garimella S, Brown AM, Nagavarapu AK. Waste heat driven absorption/vapor-compression cascade refrigeration system for megawatt scale, high-flux, low-temperature cooling. International Journal of Refrigeration. 2011;34:1776-85. [37] Zhou G, Liu R, Liu W, Liu G, Dong S, Xu X. Combustion Characteristics of Common Rail Diesel Engine Under Part Load Operating Conditions at High Altitude. Journal of Combustion Science and Technology. 2014;20:5. [38] Yao E, Wang H, Wang L, Xi G, Maréchal F. Thermo-economic optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system based on small-scale compressed air energy storage. Energy Conversion and Management. 2016;118:377-86. [39] Comodi G, Carducci F, Sze JY, Balamurugan N, Romagnoli A. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies. Energy. 2017;121:676-94. [40] Corgnale C, Hardy B, Motyka T, Zidan R, Teprovich J, Peters B. Screening analysis of metal hydride based thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power plants. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2014;38:821-33.

PY - 2017/5/25

Y1 - 2017/5/25

N2 - Due to its relatively high efficiency, Distributed Generation (DG) is widely used to supply energy sources (generally power, heating and cooling) for on-site needs. This, however, presents a challenge to deal with an abrupt increase of electricity demand. To satisfy 100% of electricity demand with a high level dynamic performance energy storage is one of the most promising options for the DG system. In this study a hybrid DG system integrated with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is proposed. Coupled with energy storage the DG system can perform a ‘peak shaving’ function and maintain the power output requirement properly, resulting in a lower core engine power rating and better process efficiency. To carry out technical evaluation the process flow chart is created and process models are developed. The results of simulation are also validated by IET’s CAES experimental data. The results reveal that the hybrid system’s exergy efficiency is 41.5%, and the primary fuel saving ratio is 23.13%. The CAES expander system is operated in a sliding pressure mode, satisfying various load profiles while its exergy efficiency for one day cycle is 64.7%. Compared with conventional DG system, within the hybrid system the core engine size can be downgraded by 35.3%, the fuel saving ratio is 11.06%.

AB - Due to its relatively high efficiency, Distributed Generation (DG) is widely used to supply energy sources (generally power, heating and cooling) for on-site needs. This, however, presents a challenge to deal with an abrupt increase of electricity demand. To satisfy 100% of electricity demand with a high level dynamic performance energy storage is one of the most promising options for the DG system. In this study a hybrid DG system integrated with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is proposed. Coupled with energy storage the DG system can perform a ‘peak shaving’ function and maintain the power output requirement properly, resulting in a lower core engine power rating and better process efficiency. To carry out technical evaluation the process flow chart is created and process models are developed. The results of simulation are also validated by IET’s CAES experimental data. The results reveal that the hybrid system’s exergy efficiency is 41.5%, and the primary fuel saving ratio is 23.13%. The CAES expander system is operated in a sliding pressure mode, satisfying various load profiles while its exergy efficiency for one day cycle is 64.7%. Compared with conventional DG system, within the hybrid system the core engine size can be downgraded by 35.3%, the fuel saving ratio is 11.06%.

KW - Distributed generation

KW - Energy storage

KW - Simulation and experiment

KW - Fuel saving

KW - Exergy efficiency

U2 - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.063

DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.063

M3 - Article

VL - NA

SP - NA

ER -