Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT

R Austin, N Quirke-Bolt, J Smyth, A Rickard, N Metcalfe, Marie Mallon

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

Abstract

This year’s research continues the theme of collaborative learning, which was also the focus of last year’s research report, and examines some of the challenges that the Dissolving Boundaries programme is presenting to participating teachers and pupils.The report links academic research into collaborative practice to the work being carried out in Dissolving Boundaries. Evidence from academic literature shows that there are positive relationships between ICT use and improvement in classroom learning. Dissolving Boundaries research shows that the use of ICT facilitates collaborative practices and is changing teaching and learning approaches in many classrooms.- II -Key factors in promoting collaborative learning between schools included:• Re-arranging the physical environment in classrooms;• The careful organisation of groups, including managing group dynamics;• Detailed and flexible planning of tasks, including setting specific aims for each group.A number of different learning styles were adopted by teachers to promote collaborative learning, ranging from those who delegated extensively at one of end of the spectrum to those who were much more directive at the other. A minority found collaborative learning a challenge to their normal practice.Many teachers confirmed that they had adapted their teaching style to accommodate greater pupil collaboration because of the noticeable benefits to pupils that they observed.3 Impact of new technologiesMoodle is a free and open source e-learning software platform, also known as a Course Management System (CMS), or Learning Management Systems (LMS), or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Moodle was introduced to teachers in Dissolving Boundaries for the first time in 2006. During 2007-08, 90% of all Dissolving Boundaries schools made use of Moodle. All these schools made use of both the teacher and pupil forums for discussion. Some special schools did not use this Virtual Learning Environment, as keyboard tasks proved too challenging. These schools rely more on videoconferencing and face to face interaction.Wikis are a more recent vehicle for collaboration used by Dissolving Boundaries schools. Wikis are a type of web based collaborative tool often referred to collectively as Web 2.0. 75% of the teachers have used these collaborative ‘wikis’ for sharing information about the topics the pupils have- III -been researching; this is a significant increase compared to 2006-7 when only 50% did so. When wikis were used this encouraged a stronger sense of collaboration and teamwork amongst pupils.Of the teachers who used ‘wikis’ during 2007-08, there has been an increase of 77% in those whose work reached the most sophisticated levels of collaborative learning, compared to the previous year.New technologies have the greatest impact when pupils also meet face to face; 66% of schools arranged face to face visits and these frequently acted as a stimulus for further on-line interaction.The absence of video-conferencing facilities in 2007-8 was noted as a significant loss by teachers, particularly in primary and special schools. The successful piloting of ‘Marratech’ videoconferencing software by C2k in Northern Ireland in 2007-8 will lead to the re-introduction of video-conferencing to all schools in 2008-9.Teachers frequently mentioned the enthusiasm that was generated by the use of the Dissolving Boundaries programme’s technology, which was seen to be very different from other schoolwork they were engaged in. The pupils were seen to take ownership of their work within the projects and they often worked over and beyond the levels that were expected and required.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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pupil
teacher
school
learning
education
classroom
learning environment
video
learning software
teaching style
group dynamics
teamwork
interaction
management
electronic learning
new technology
stimulus
Group
minority
planning

Keywords

  • Collaborative learning schools
  • Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland
  • ICT

Cite this

Austin, R., Quirke-Bolt, N., Smyth, J., Rickard, A., Metcalfe, N., & Mallon, M. (2008). Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT.
Austin, R ; Quirke-Bolt, N ; Smyth, J ; Rickard, A ; Metcalfe, N ; Mallon, Marie. / Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT. 2008. 1 p.
@book{1b8a9ec3d0af4c03a0e6b21f4392a08f,
title = "Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT",
abstract = "This year’s research continues the theme of collaborative learning, which was also the focus of last year’s research report, and examines some of the challenges that the Dissolving Boundaries programme is presenting to participating teachers and pupils.The report links academic research into collaborative practice to the work being carried out in Dissolving Boundaries. Evidence from academic literature shows that there are positive relationships between ICT use and improvement in classroom learning. Dissolving Boundaries research shows that the use of ICT facilitates collaborative practices and is changing teaching and learning approaches in many classrooms.- II -Key factors in promoting collaborative learning between schools included:• Re-arranging the physical environment in classrooms;• The careful organisation of groups, including managing group dynamics;• Detailed and flexible planning of tasks, including setting specific aims for each group.A number of different learning styles were adopted by teachers to promote collaborative learning, ranging from those who delegated extensively at one of end of the spectrum to those who were much more directive at the other. A minority found collaborative learning a challenge to their normal practice.Many teachers confirmed that they had adapted their teaching style to accommodate greater pupil collaboration because of the noticeable benefits to pupils that they observed.3 Impact of new technologiesMoodle is a free and open source e-learning software platform, also known as a Course Management System (CMS), or Learning Management Systems (LMS), or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Moodle was introduced to teachers in Dissolving Boundaries for the first time in 2006. During 2007-08, 90{\%} of all Dissolving Boundaries schools made use of Moodle. All these schools made use of both the teacher and pupil forums for discussion. Some special schools did not use this Virtual Learning Environment, as keyboard tasks proved too challenging. These schools rely more on videoconferencing and face to face interaction.Wikis are a more recent vehicle for collaboration used by Dissolving Boundaries schools. Wikis are a type of web based collaborative tool often referred to collectively as Web 2.0. 75{\%} of the teachers have used these collaborative ‘wikis’ for sharing information about the topics the pupils have- III -been researching; this is a significant increase compared to 2006-7 when only 50{\%} did so. When wikis were used this encouraged a stronger sense of collaboration and teamwork amongst pupils.Of the teachers who used ‘wikis’ during 2007-08, there has been an increase of 77{\%} in those whose work reached the most sophisticated levels of collaborative learning, compared to the previous year.New technologies have the greatest impact when pupils also meet face to face; 66{\%} of schools arranged face to face visits and these frequently acted as a stimulus for further on-line interaction.The absence of video-conferencing facilities in 2007-8 was noted as a significant loss by teachers, particularly in primary and special schools. The successful piloting of ‘Marratech’ videoconferencing software by C2k in Northern Ireland in 2007-8 will lead to the re-introduction of video-conferencing to all schools in 2008-9.Teachers frequently mentioned the enthusiasm that was generated by the use of the Dissolving Boundaries programme’s technology, which was seen to be very different from other schoolwork they were engaged in. The pupils were seen to take ownership of their work within the projects and they often worked over and beyond the levels that were expected and required.",
keywords = "Collaborative learning schools, Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland, ICT",
author = "R Austin and N Quirke-Bolt and J Smyth and A Rickard and N Metcalfe and Marie Mallon",
note = "Reference text: Abbott, L., Austin, R., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2004) ‘The global classroom: advancing cultural awareness in special schools through collaborative work using ICT’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19(2). Augar, N., Raitman, R. & Zhou, W. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis. In Beyond the Comfort Zone: Proceedings ASCILITE 2004 (pp.95-104). Perth, WA. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/ perth04/procs/augar.htm Austin, R. (2007) ‘The Knowledge Society, the role of ICT and what it means for educators’, Keynote at Standing Conference on Teacher Education, North and South Annual Conference (SCoTENS): Teaching in the Knowledge Society, Malahide, Co. Dublin. Austin, R. and Anderson, J. (2008) e-Schooling Global messages from a small island, Routledge, London and New York. Austin, R., Abbott, L., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2002) Dissolving Boundaries in the North and South of Ireland : cross-national co-operation through ICT in Education, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Abbott, L., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2003) The Global Classroom : collaboration and cultural awareness in the north and south of Ireland, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Smyth, J., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2004) Dissolving Boundaries : supporting transformation in the classroom? Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Mallon, M., Rickard, A. Quirke-Bolt, N. and Metcalfe, N. (2006) Dissolving Boundaries : Building Communities of Practice, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Smyth, J, Mallon, M., Rickard, A. Quirke-Bolt, N. and Metcalfe, N. (2007) Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education : Collaborative Learning between Schools, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Barber, M. (2001) ‘Teaching for tomorrow’, OECD, available from http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/420 (accessed 24 June, 2008). Berge, Z. (1997). Computer conferencing and the on-line classroom. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 3(1), 3–21. Biesenbach-Lucas, S. (2004) Asynchronous Web Discussions in Teacher Training Courses: Promoting Collaborative Learning—or Not? Association for the Advancement of Computing In Education, 12(2). - 61- Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education Bonk, C., & King, K. (Eds.) (1998). Electronic collaborators. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bower, M., Woo, K., Roberts, M. & Watters, P.A. (2006). Wiki pedagogy - A tale of two wikis. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 06), Sydney, Australia. Bruner, J.S. (1984). Actual minds, possible worlds. London: Harvard University Press. Brush, T. A. (1998). Embedding cooperative learning into the design of integrated learning rationale and guidelines. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46(3), 5–18. Chong, S-M. (1998). Models of asynchronous computer conferencing for collaborative learning in large college classes. In C. J. Bonk & K. S. King (Eds.), Electronic collaborators (pp. 157-182). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Choy, S. O. & Ng, K. C. (2007). Implementing wiki software for supplementing online learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23(2), 209-226 Collins, M., & Berge, Z. (1996). Facilitating interaction in computer mediated online courses. Retrieved June 15, 2000, from http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/flcc.html Daft, R., & Lengel, R. (1986). Organisational Information Requirements: media richness and structural design. Management Science, Vol 32, 554-571. Daft, R. L., Lengel, R. H., & Trevino, L. (1987). Message equivocality, media selection, and manager performance. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 355–366. Dillenbourg, P. (Ed.). (1999). Collaborative learning. Cognitive and computational approaches. Amsterdam: Pergamon. Dougiamas, M. and Taylor, P.C. (2002) Interpretive analysis of an internet-based course constructed using a new courseware tool called Moodle. Proceedings of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) 2002 Conference, Perth, Western Australia. Empirica (2006) ‘Benchmarking Access and Use of ICT in European Schools’, Empirica, 2006. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/studies/final_report_3.pdf E-skills UK. (2008) Technology Counts: IT and Telecoms Insights 2008, Gartner Inc. Fishman, B. J. (1997). Students traits and the use of computer-mediated communication tools: what matters and why? Paper presented at the 1997 AERA Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. - 62- Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education Garrison, D. R. (1993). Quality and theory in distance education: theoretical consideration. In D. Keegan (ed.), Theoretical principles of distance education. New York: Routledge. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking and computer conferencing: a model and tool to access cognitive presence. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23. Gilbert, L., & Moore, D. R. (1998). Building interactivity into web courses: tools for social and instructional interaction. Educational Technology, 38(3), 29–35. Greenlaw, S.A., & DeLoach, S.B. (2003). Teaching critical thinking with elec-tronic discussion. Journal of Economic Education, 34(1), 36-52. Gunawardena, C. N. (1995). Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2/3), 147–166. Guanawardena, C. N., Lowe, X., Constance, A., & Anderson, T. (1997). Analysis of a global debate and the development of an interaction analysis model for examining social construction of knowledge in computer conferencing. Journal of educational computing research, 17(4), 397–431. Hansen, T. (1999). Using telematics for collaborative knowledge construction. In P. Dillenbourg (Ed.), Collaborative learning. Cognitive and computational approaches (pp. 169–196). Amsterdam: Pergamon. Harrison, C., Comber, C., Fisher, T., Haw, K., Lewin, C., Lunzer, E., McFarlane, A., Mavers, D., Scrimshaw, P., Somekh, B. and Watling, R. (2002) The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Pupil Learning and Attainment, Becta, Coventry: http://www.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/ImpaCT2_strand1_report.pdf (accessed 23 June 2008). Hiltz, S. R. (1994). The virtual classroom: learning without limits via computer networks. Norwood, NJ USA: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Irvine, S.E. (2000). What are we talking about? The impact of computer-medi-ated communication on student learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED444494) Jonassen, D. H. (1994). Toward a constructivist design model. Educational Technology, 34(4), 34–37. Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T. (1993). Cooperative learning: Where we have been, where we are going. Cooperative Learning and College Teaching, 3(2). Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., Stanne, M., & Garibaldi, A. (1990). The impact of leader and member group processing on achievement in cooperative groups. Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 507-516. Kahmi-Stein, L. (2000a). Adapting US-based TESOL education to meet the needs of nonnative English speakers. TESOL Journal, 9(3), 10-14. - 63- Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education Kahmi-Stein, L. (2000b). Looking to the future of TESOL teacher education: Web-based bulletin board discussions in a methods course. TESOL Quarterly, 34(3), 423-455. Kasper, G. (2000). Four perspectives on pragmatic development. Manuscript of Plenary given at the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Vancouver, March 2000. Kearsley, G. (1995). The nature and value of interaction in distance learning. (ACSDE Research Monograph No. 12). State College, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, American Center for the Study of Distance Education. Lamy, M-N., & Goodfellow, R. (1999). “Reflective conversation” in the virtual language classroom. Language Learning & Technology, 2(2), 43-61. Liaw, S., & Huang, H. (2000). Enhancing interactivity in web-based instruction: a review of the literature. Educational Technology, 40(3), 41–45. Machin, S., McNally, S. and Silva, O., (2006) New Technology in Schools: Is There a Payoff? Institute of the Study of Labour, http://ftp.iza.org/dp2234.pdf#search=New{\%}20technologies{\%}20in{\%}20schools{\%}3A{\%}20Is{\%}20there{\%}20a{\%}20pay{\%}20off{\%}3F{\%}20{\%}22 McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Oral communication apprehension: a summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4, 78–96. Merron, J. (1998). Managing a Web-based literature course for undergraduates. Retrieved October 26, 2000, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/merron14.html Muirhead, B. (1999). Attitudes toward interactivity in a distance education program: a qualitative analysis.Parkland, FL: Dissertation.com Northrup, P. (2001). A framework for designing interactivity in web-based instruction. Educational Technology, 41(2), 31–39. Nunan, D. (1999). A foot in the world of ideas: Graduate study through the In-ternet. Language Learning and Technology, 3(1), 52-74. Ocker, R.J., & Yaverbaum, G.J. (1999). Asynchronous computer-mediated communication versus face-to-face collaboration: Results on student learning, quality, and satisfaction. Group Decision and Negotiation, 8, 427-440. OECD (2004) ‘Are students ready for a technology rich world? What PISA studies tell us’, France: OECD. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/28/4/35995145.pdf (accessed on 23 June 2008). Olson, G. M., & Olson, J. S. (2000). Distance matters. Human Computer Interaction, 15, 139–178. O’Malley, C. (1995). Designing computer support for collaborative learning. In C. O’Malley (Ed.), Computer supported collaborative learning (pp. 283-297). New York: Springer-Verlag. Passey, D., Rogers, C., Machell, J. and McHugh, G. (2004) The Motivational Effect of ICT on Pupils, Department of Educational Research Lancaster University. Ramboll Management (2006) ‘Elearning Nordic 2006: Impact of ICT on Education’, Denmark: Ramboll Management. (accessed on 23 June 2008). Reding, V. (2002) ‘Knowledge is Power’, European Commission for Education and Culture, Extracts from the Public Service Review, European Union. Rice, R. E. (1993). Media appropriateness: using social presence theory to compare traditional and new organizational media. Human Communication Research, 19, 451–484. Robertson, R. (2002) ‘The ambiguous embrace: twenty years of IT (ICT) in UK primary schools’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 33 (4) , 403–409. Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Archer, W., & Garrison, D. R. (1999). Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based, computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(3), 51–70. Sengupta, S. (2001). Exchanging ideas with peers in network-based classrooms: An aid or a pain? Language Learning and Technology, 5(1), 103-134. Scarce, R. (1997). Using electronic mail discussion groups to enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Retrieved June 7, 2000, from http://horizon.unc.edu/TS/cases/1997-07a.asp Smeets, E. (2005) ‘Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education?’, Computers & Education, 44, 343–355. Stevenson, R. (1997) Information and communications technology: an independent inquiry, London: Independent ICT in Schools Commission. Soller, A. L., & Lesgold, A., Linton, F., Goodman, B. (1999). What makes peer interaction effective? Modeling effective communication in an intelligent CSCL. In Proceedings of the 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium: Psychological Models of Communication in Collaborative Systems (pp. 116–123). Cape-Cod, MA. Wagner, E. D. (1994). In support of a functional definition of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 6–29. Wegerif, R. (1998). The social dimension of asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 2(1), 34–49. Williams, D., Coles, L., Richardson, A., Wilson, K. and Tuson, J. (2000) ‘Integrating Information and Communications Technology in Professional Practice: an analysis of teachers’ needs based on a survey of primary and secondary teachers in Scottish schools’, Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(2). -",
year = "2008",
language = "English",

}

Austin, R, Quirke-Bolt, N, Smyth, J, Rickard, A, Metcalfe, N & Mallon, M 2008, Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT.

Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT. / Austin, R; Quirke-Bolt, N; Smyth, J; Rickard, A; Metcalfe, N; Mallon, Marie.

2008. 1 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

TY - BOOK

T1 - Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT

AU - Austin, R

AU - Quirke-Bolt, N

AU - Smyth, J

AU - Rickard, A

AU - Metcalfe, N

AU - Mallon, Marie

N1 - Reference text: Abbott, L., Austin, R., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2004) ‘The global classroom: advancing cultural awareness in special schools through collaborative work using ICT’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19(2). Augar, N., Raitman, R. & Zhou, W. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis. In Beyond the Comfort Zone: Proceedings ASCILITE 2004 (pp.95-104). Perth, WA. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/ perth04/procs/augar.htm Austin, R. (2007) ‘The Knowledge Society, the role of ICT and what it means for educators’, Keynote at Standing Conference on Teacher Education, North and South Annual Conference (SCoTENS): Teaching in the Knowledge Society, Malahide, Co. Dublin. Austin, R. and Anderson, J. (2008) e-Schooling Global messages from a small island, Routledge, London and New York. Austin, R., Abbott, L., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2002) Dissolving Boundaries in the North and South of Ireland : cross-national co-operation through ICT in Education, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Abbott, L., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2003) The Global Classroom : collaboration and cultural awareness in the north and south of Ireland, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Smyth, J., Mulkeen, A. and Metcalfe, N. (2004) Dissolving Boundaries : supporting transformation in the classroom? Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Mallon, M., Rickard, A. Quirke-Bolt, N. and Metcalfe, N. (2006) Dissolving Boundaries : Building Communities of Practice, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Austin, R., Smyth, J, Mallon, M., Rickard, A. Quirke-Bolt, N. and Metcalfe, N. (2007) Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education : Collaborative Learning between Schools, Bangor: Department of Education and Dublin: Department of Education and Science. Barber, M. (2001) ‘Teaching for tomorrow’, OECD, available from http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/420 (accessed 24 June, 2008). Berge, Z. (1997). Computer conferencing and the on-line classroom. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 3(1), 3–21. Biesenbach-Lucas, S. (2004) Asynchronous Web Discussions in Teacher Training Courses: Promoting Collaborative Learning—or Not? Association for the Advancement of Computing In Education, 12(2). - 61- Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education Bonk, C., & King, K. (Eds.) (1998). Electronic collaborators. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bower, M., Woo, K., Roberts, M. & Watters, P.A. (2006). Wiki pedagogy - A tale of two wikis. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 06), Sydney, Australia. Bruner, J.S. (1984). Actual minds, possible worlds. London: Harvard University Press. Brush, T. A. (1998). Embedding cooperative learning into the design of integrated learning rationale and guidelines. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46(3), 5–18. Chong, S-M. (1998). Models of asynchronous computer conferencing for collaborative learning in large college classes. In C. J. Bonk & K. S. King (Eds.), Electronic collaborators (pp. 157-182). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Choy, S. O. & Ng, K. C. (2007). Implementing wiki software for supplementing online learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23(2), 209-226 Collins, M., & Berge, Z. (1996). Facilitating interaction in computer mediated online courses. Retrieved June 15, 2000, from http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/flcc.html Daft, R., & Lengel, R. (1986). Organisational Information Requirements: media richness and structural design. Management Science, Vol 32, 554-571. Daft, R. L., Lengel, R. H., & Trevino, L. (1987). Message equivocality, media selection, and manager performance. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 355–366. Dillenbourg, P. (Ed.). (1999). Collaborative learning. Cognitive and computational approaches. Amsterdam: Pergamon. Dougiamas, M. and Taylor, P.C. (2002) Interpretive analysis of an internet-based course constructed using a new courseware tool called Moodle. Proceedings of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) 2002 Conference, Perth, Western Australia. Empirica (2006) ‘Benchmarking Access and Use of ICT in European Schools’, Empirica, 2006. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/studies/final_report_3.pdf E-skills UK. (2008) Technology Counts: IT and Telecoms Insights 2008, Gartner Inc. Fishman, B. J. (1997). Students traits and the use of computer-mediated communication tools: what matters and why? Paper presented at the 1997 AERA Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. - 62- Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education Garrison, D. R. (1993). Quality and theory in distance education: theoretical consideration. In D. Keegan (ed.), Theoretical principles of distance education. New York: Routledge. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking and computer conferencing: a model and tool to access cognitive presence. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23. Gilbert, L., & Moore, D. R. (1998). Building interactivity into web courses: tools for social and instructional interaction. Educational Technology, 38(3), 29–35. Greenlaw, S.A., & DeLoach, S.B. (2003). Teaching critical thinking with elec-tronic discussion. Journal of Economic Education, 34(1), 36-52. Gunawardena, C. N. (1995). Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2/3), 147–166. Guanawardena, C. N., Lowe, X., Constance, A., & Anderson, T. (1997). Analysis of a global debate and the development of an interaction analysis model for examining social construction of knowledge in computer conferencing. Journal of educational computing research, 17(4), 397–431. Hansen, T. (1999). Using telematics for collaborative knowledge construction. In P. Dillenbourg (Ed.), Collaborative learning. Cognitive and computational approaches (pp. 169–196). Amsterdam: Pergamon. Harrison, C., Comber, C., Fisher, T., Haw, K., Lewin, C., Lunzer, E., McFarlane, A., Mavers, D., Scrimshaw, P., Somekh, B. and Watling, R. (2002) The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Pupil Learning and Attainment, Becta, Coventry: http://www.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/ImpaCT2_strand1_report.pdf (accessed 23 June 2008). Hiltz, S. R. (1994). The virtual classroom: learning without limits via computer networks. Norwood, NJ USA: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Irvine, S.E. (2000). What are we talking about? The impact of computer-medi-ated communication on student learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED444494) Jonassen, D. H. (1994). Toward a constructivist design model. Educational Technology, 34(4), 34–37. Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T. (1993). Cooperative learning: Where we have been, where we are going. Cooperative Learning and College Teaching, 3(2). Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., Stanne, M., & Garibaldi, A. (1990). The impact of leader and member group processing on achievement in cooperative groups. Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 507-516. Kahmi-Stein, L. (2000a). Adapting US-based TESOL education to meet the needs of nonnative English speakers. TESOL Journal, 9(3), 10-14. - 63- Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education Kahmi-Stein, L. (2000b). Looking to the future of TESOL teacher education: Web-based bulletin board discussions in a methods course. TESOL Quarterly, 34(3), 423-455. Kasper, G. (2000). Four perspectives on pragmatic development. Manuscript of Plenary given at the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Vancouver, March 2000. Kearsley, G. (1995). The nature and value of interaction in distance learning. (ACSDE Research Monograph No. 12). State College, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, American Center for the Study of Distance Education. Lamy, M-N., & Goodfellow, R. (1999). “Reflective conversation” in the virtual language classroom. Language Learning & Technology, 2(2), 43-61. Liaw, S., & Huang, H. (2000). Enhancing interactivity in web-based instruction: a review of the literature. Educational Technology, 40(3), 41–45. Machin, S., McNally, S. and Silva, O., (2006) New Technology in Schools: Is There a Payoff? Institute of the Study of Labour, http://ftp.iza.org/dp2234.pdf#search=New%20technologies%20in%20schools%3A%20Is%20there%20a%20pay%20off%3F%20%22 McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Oral communication apprehension: a summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4, 78–96. Merron, J. (1998). Managing a Web-based literature course for undergraduates. Retrieved October 26, 2000, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/merron14.html Muirhead, B. (1999). Attitudes toward interactivity in a distance education program: a qualitative analysis.Parkland, FL: Dissertation.com Northrup, P. (2001). A framework for designing interactivity in web-based instruction. Educational Technology, 41(2), 31–39. Nunan, D. (1999). A foot in the world of ideas: Graduate study through the In-ternet. Language Learning and Technology, 3(1), 52-74. Ocker, R.J., & Yaverbaum, G.J. (1999). Asynchronous computer-mediated communication versus face-to-face collaboration: Results on student learning, quality, and satisfaction. Group Decision and Negotiation, 8, 427-440. OECD (2004) ‘Are students ready for a technology rich world? What PISA studies tell us’, France: OECD. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/28/4/35995145.pdf (accessed on 23 June 2008). Olson, G. M., & Olson, J. S. (2000). Distance matters. Human Computer Interaction, 15, 139–178. O’Malley, C. (1995). Designing computer support for collaborative learning. In C. O’Malley (Ed.), Computer supported collaborative learning (pp. 283-297). New York: Springer-Verlag. Passey, D., Rogers, C., Machell, J. and McHugh, G. (2004) The Motivational Effect of ICT on Pupils, Department of Educational Research Lancaster University. Ramboll Management (2006) ‘Elearning Nordic 2006: Impact of ICT on Education’, Denmark: Ramboll Management. (accessed on 23 June 2008). Reding, V. (2002) ‘Knowledge is Power’, European Commission for Education and Culture, Extracts from the Public Service Review, European Union. Rice, R. E. (1993). Media appropriateness: using social presence theory to compare traditional and new organizational media. Human Communication Research, 19, 451–484. Robertson, R. (2002) ‘The ambiguous embrace: twenty years of IT (ICT) in UK primary schools’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 33 (4) , 403–409. Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Archer, W., & Garrison, D. R. (1999). Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based, computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(3), 51–70. Sengupta, S. (2001). Exchanging ideas with peers in network-based classrooms: An aid or a pain? Language Learning and Technology, 5(1), 103-134. Scarce, R. (1997). Using electronic mail discussion groups to enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Retrieved June 7, 2000, from http://horizon.unc.edu/TS/cases/1997-07a.asp Smeets, E. (2005) ‘Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education?’, Computers & Education, 44, 343–355. Stevenson, R. (1997) Information and communications technology: an independent inquiry, London: Independent ICT in Schools Commission. Soller, A. L., & Lesgold, A., Linton, F., Goodman, B. (1999). What makes peer interaction effective? Modeling effective communication in an intelligent CSCL. In Proceedings of the 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium: Psychological Models of Communication in Collaborative Systems (pp. 116–123). Cape-Cod, MA. Wagner, E. D. (1994). In support of a functional definition of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 6–29. Wegerif, R. (1998). The social dimension of asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 2(1), 34–49. Williams, D., Coles, L., Richardson, A., Wilson, K. and Tuson, J. (2000) ‘Integrating Information and Communications Technology in Professional Practice: an analysis of teachers’ needs based on a survey of primary and secondary teachers in Scottish schools’, Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(2). -

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - This year’s research continues the theme of collaborative learning, which was also the focus of last year’s research report, and examines some of the challenges that the Dissolving Boundaries programme is presenting to participating teachers and pupils.The report links academic research into collaborative practice to the work being carried out in Dissolving Boundaries. Evidence from academic literature shows that there are positive relationships between ICT use and improvement in classroom learning. Dissolving Boundaries research shows that the use of ICT facilitates collaborative practices and is changing teaching and learning approaches in many classrooms.- II -Key factors in promoting collaborative learning between schools included:• Re-arranging the physical environment in classrooms;• The careful organisation of groups, including managing group dynamics;• Detailed and flexible planning of tasks, including setting specific aims for each group.A number of different learning styles were adopted by teachers to promote collaborative learning, ranging from those who delegated extensively at one of end of the spectrum to those who were much more directive at the other. A minority found collaborative learning a challenge to their normal practice.Many teachers confirmed that they had adapted their teaching style to accommodate greater pupil collaboration because of the noticeable benefits to pupils that they observed.3 Impact of new technologiesMoodle is a free and open source e-learning software platform, also known as a Course Management System (CMS), or Learning Management Systems (LMS), or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Moodle was introduced to teachers in Dissolving Boundaries for the first time in 2006. During 2007-08, 90% of all Dissolving Boundaries schools made use of Moodle. All these schools made use of both the teacher and pupil forums for discussion. Some special schools did not use this Virtual Learning Environment, as keyboard tasks proved too challenging. These schools rely more on videoconferencing and face to face interaction.Wikis are a more recent vehicle for collaboration used by Dissolving Boundaries schools. Wikis are a type of web based collaborative tool often referred to collectively as Web 2.0. 75% of the teachers have used these collaborative ‘wikis’ for sharing information about the topics the pupils have- III -been researching; this is a significant increase compared to 2006-7 when only 50% did so. When wikis were used this encouraged a stronger sense of collaboration and teamwork amongst pupils.Of the teachers who used ‘wikis’ during 2007-08, there has been an increase of 77% in those whose work reached the most sophisticated levels of collaborative learning, compared to the previous year.New technologies have the greatest impact when pupils also meet face to face; 66% of schools arranged face to face visits and these frequently acted as a stimulus for further on-line interaction.The absence of video-conferencing facilities in 2007-8 was noted as a significant loss by teachers, particularly in primary and special schools. The successful piloting of ‘Marratech’ videoconferencing software by C2k in Northern Ireland in 2007-8 will lead to the re-introduction of video-conferencing to all schools in 2008-9.Teachers frequently mentioned the enthusiasm that was generated by the use of the Dissolving Boundaries programme’s technology, which was seen to be very different from other schoolwork they were engaged in. The pupils were seen to take ownership of their work within the projects and they often worked over and beyond the levels that were expected and required.

AB - This year’s research continues the theme of collaborative learning, which was also the focus of last year’s research report, and examines some of the challenges that the Dissolving Boundaries programme is presenting to participating teachers and pupils.The report links academic research into collaborative practice to the work being carried out in Dissolving Boundaries. Evidence from academic literature shows that there are positive relationships between ICT use and improvement in classroom learning. Dissolving Boundaries research shows that the use of ICT facilitates collaborative practices and is changing teaching and learning approaches in many classrooms.- II -Key factors in promoting collaborative learning between schools included:• Re-arranging the physical environment in classrooms;• The careful organisation of groups, including managing group dynamics;• Detailed and flexible planning of tasks, including setting specific aims for each group.A number of different learning styles were adopted by teachers to promote collaborative learning, ranging from those who delegated extensively at one of end of the spectrum to those who were much more directive at the other. A minority found collaborative learning a challenge to their normal practice.Many teachers confirmed that they had adapted their teaching style to accommodate greater pupil collaboration because of the noticeable benefits to pupils that they observed.3 Impact of new technologiesMoodle is a free and open source e-learning software platform, also known as a Course Management System (CMS), or Learning Management Systems (LMS), or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Moodle was introduced to teachers in Dissolving Boundaries for the first time in 2006. During 2007-08, 90% of all Dissolving Boundaries schools made use of Moodle. All these schools made use of both the teacher and pupil forums for discussion. Some special schools did not use this Virtual Learning Environment, as keyboard tasks proved too challenging. These schools rely more on videoconferencing and face to face interaction.Wikis are a more recent vehicle for collaboration used by Dissolving Boundaries schools. Wikis are a type of web based collaborative tool often referred to collectively as Web 2.0. 75% of the teachers have used these collaborative ‘wikis’ for sharing information about the topics the pupils have- III -been researching; this is a significant increase compared to 2006-7 when only 50% did so. When wikis were used this encouraged a stronger sense of collaboration and teamwork amongst pupils.Of the teachers who used ‘wikis’ during 2007-08, there has been an increase of 77% in those whose work reached the most sophisticated levels of collaborative learning, compared to the previous year.New technologies have the greatest impact when pupils also meet face to face; 66% of schools arranged face to face visits and these frequently acted as a stimulus for further on-line interaction.The absence of video-conferencing facilities in 2007-8 was noted as a significant loss by teachers, particularly in primary and special schools. The successful piloting of ‘Marratech’ videoconferencing software by C2k in Northern Ireland in 2007-8 will lead to the re-introduction of video-conferencing to all schools in 2008-9.Teachers frequently mentioned the enthusiasm that was generated by the use of the Dissolving Boundaries programme’s technology, which was seen to be very different from other schoolwork they were engaged in. The pupils were seen to take ownership of their work within the projects and they often worked over and beyond the levels that were expected and required.

KW - Collaborative learning schools

KW - Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland

KW - ICT

M3 - Commissioned report

BT - Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT

ER -

Austin R, Quirke-Bolt N, Smyth J, Rickard A, Metcalfe N, Mallon M. Dissolving Boundaries through Technology in Education: Making a difference with ICT. 2008. 1 p.