Laser-induced graphene (LIG) on paper substrates is a desirable material for single-use point-of-care sensing with its high-quality electrical properties, low fabrication cost, and ease of disposal. While a prior study has shown how the repeated lasing of substrates enables the synthesis of high-quality porous graphitic films, however, the process-property correlation of lasing process on the surface microstructure and electrochemical behavior, including charge-transfer kinetics, is missing. The current study presents a systematic in-depth study on LIG synthesis to elucidate the complex relationship between the surface microstructure and the resulting electroanalytical properties. The observed improvements were then applied to develop high-quality LIG-based electrochemical biosensors for uric acid detection. We show that the optimal paper LIG produced via a dual pass (defocused followed by focused lasing) produces high-quality graphene in terms of crystallinity, content, and electrochemical surface area. The highest quality LIG electrodes achieved a high rate constant of 1.5 × 10 cm s and a significant reduction in charge-transfer resistance (818 Ω compared with 1320 Ω for a commercial glassy carbon electrode). By employing square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and chronoamperometry on a disposable two-electrode paper LIG-based device, the improved charge-transfer kinetics led to enhanced performance for sensing of uric acid with a sensitivity of 24.35 ± 1.55 μA μM and a limit of detection of 41 nM. This study shows how high-quality, sensitive LIG electrodes can be integrated into electrochemical paper analytical devices.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces|
|Early online date||29 Jun 2022|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 13 Jul 2022|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society.
- laser-induced graphene
- porous graphene
- uric acid
- electrochemical sensing