Disposable Paper-Based Biosensors: Optimizing the Electrochemical Properties of Laser-Induced Graphene

Gourav Bhattacharya, Sam J Fishlock, Shahzad Hussain, Sudipta Choudhury, Annan Xiang, Baljinder Kandola, Anurag Pritam, Navneet Soin, Susanta Sinha Roy, James A McLaughlin

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Abstract

Laser-induced graphene (LIG) on paper substrates is a desirable material for single-use point-of-care sensing with its high-quality electrical properties, low fabrication cost, and ease of disposal. While a prior study has shown how the repeated lasing of substrates enables the synthesis of high-quality porous graphitic films, however, the process-property correlation of lasing process on the surface microstructure and electrochemical behavior, including charge-transfer kinetics, is missing. The current study presents a systematic in-depth study on LIG synthesis to elucidate the complex relationship between the surface microstructure and the resulting electroanalytical properties. The observed improvements were then applied to develop high-quality LIG-based electrochemical biosensors for uric acid detection. We show that the optimal paper LIG produced via a dual pass (defocused followed by focused lasing) produces high-quality graphene in terms of crystallinity, content, and electrochemical surface area. The highest quality LIG electrodes achieved a high rate constant of 1.5 × 10 cm s and a significant reduction in charge-transfer resistance (818 Ω compared with 1320 Ω for a commercial glassy carbon electrode). By employing square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and chronoamperometry on a disposable two-electrode paper LIG-based device, the improved charge-transfer kinetics led to enhanced performance for sensing of uric acid with a sensitivity of 24.35 ± 1.55 μA μM and a limit of detection of 41 nM. This study shows how high-quality, sensitive LIG electrodes can be integrated into electrochemical paper analytical devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31109–31120
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Volume14
Issue number27
Early online date29 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2022

Keywords

  • laser-induced graphene
  • porous graphene
  • ePAD
  • uric acid
  • electrochemical sensing

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