Disposable Paper-Based Biosensors: Optimizing the Electrochemical Properties of Laser-Induced Graphene

Gourav Bhattacharya, Sam J Fishlock, Shahzad Hussain, Sudipta Choudhury, Annan Xiang, Baljinder Kandola, Anurag Pritam, Navneet Soin, Susanta Sinha Roy, James A McLaughlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
137 Downloads (Pure)


Laser-induced graphene (LIG) on paper substrates is a desirable material for single-use point-of-care sensing with its high-quality electrical properties, low fabrication cost, and ease of disposal. While a prior study has shown how the repeated lasing of substrates enables the synthesis of high-quality porous graphitic films, however, the process-property correlation of lasing process on the surface microstructure and electrochemical behavior, including charge-transfer kinetics, is missing. The current study presents a systematic in-depth study on LIG synthesis to elucidate the complex relationship between the surface microstructure and the resulting electroanalytical properties. The observed improvements were then applied to develop high-quality LIG-based electrochemical biosensors for uric acid detection. We show that the optimal paper LIG produced via a dual pass (defocused followed by focused lasing) produces high-quality graphene in terms of crystallinity, content, and electrochemical surface area. The highest quality LIG electrodes achieved a high rate constant of 1.5 × 10 cm s and a significant reduction in charge-transfer resistance (818 Ω compared with 1320 Ω for a commercial glassy carbon electrode). By employing square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and chronoamperometry on a disposable two-electrode paper LIG-based device, the improved charge-transfer kinetics led to enhanced performance for sensing of uric acid with a sensitivity of 24.35 ± 1.55 μA μM and a limit of detection of 41 nM. This study shows how high-quality, sensitive LIG electrodes can be integrated into electrochemical paper analytical devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31109–31120
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number27
Early online date29 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 13 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society.


  • laser-induced graphene
  • porous graphene
  • ePAD
  • uric acid
  • electrochemical sensing


Dive into the research topics of 'Disposable Paper-Based Biosensors: Optimizing the Electrochemical Properties of Laser-Induced Graphene'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this