Discovering Skeletal Joe Median

Justin Magee, John Winder, Brian Mcclelland

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

14 Downloads (Pure)


The purpose of this study is to produce an accurate anthropometric reference model, of the median human skeletal anatomy, for posture analysis using computer assisted design (CAD). Also, to determine if a single reference model can be proposed by combining data from existing studies of quantitative anatomy, including the cranium, spine, clavicle and pelvic girdle. A review of existing literature across the disciplines of anthropometrics, ergonomics, clinical anatomy, forensic science, and clinical biomechanics was carried out using books, academic journals, conference proceedings, international standards, government and military reports. Subject selection criteria included white males, from European, American, Middle Eastern, North African and South African sources. Only study samples with documented stature or other scalable references, between the ages of 19-65 years without spinal deformation or degradation were included. These findings were scaled to correspond to 2004 UK median stature data and combined as a process of normalisation. The measurements from existing studies have often been compared to each other, but as the studies have different stature averages, they are not numerically comparable. The current study is more holistic and accurate than existing studies with a resulting reference model, which includes 581 dimensions constructed to a precision of 0.1mm or 0.1° as full scale, 2D engineering drawings with accompanying spreadsheets of normalised dimensions. A resulting static 3D model was produced. This model is easily scaleable for changes identified in ergonomic secular trends. All newly scaled anatomical dimensions still remain closely comparable or confirm findings of other investigators. It was noted no guidelines for dimensioning anatomical data exists. Some recommendations are proposed. An anatomically accurate computer model has been generated which will aid further work in posture analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
EditorsDebkumar Chakrabarti, Abhijit Das
Place of PublicationNew Dehli
PublisherAllied Publishers
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)81-8424-124-0
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - Jan 2006
EventHumanizing Work and Work Environments (HWWE) 2005 - Institute of Technology Guwahati, India
Duration: 1 Jan 2006 → …


ConferenceHumanizing Work and Work Environments (HWWE) 2005
Period1/01/06 → …
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Reference text: 1. Dozci, Gyorgy, /the power of Limits- proportional harmonies in Nature, Art and Architecture, Shambhala Boston and London 1981, p93-103
2. Dempster, W.T., 1955. Space requirements of the seated operator. Wright-Patterson Air-force Base, Ohio, pp. 55–159
3. Le Corbusier CEJ, The Modular 1 & 2, Harvard University press 1954
4. Elam K, Geometry of Design, studies in proportion and composition, 2001. ISBN 1-56898-249-6
5. Phesant S., Bodyspace – anthropometry, Ergonomics and Design, Taylor and Francis 1988
6. Croney J., Anthropometrics for designers P47-68, B. T. Batsford Ltd, London 1971 ISBN: 0442217587
7. Peebles L, Norris B, University of Nottingham for DTI, ADULTDATA, The handbook of anthropometric and strength measurements- Data for safety design. 1998
8. Dreyfuss Henry, The measure of Man: Human factors and design (2). 1967. New York library of design.
9. Harrison, DE, Harrison, DD, Troyanovich, SJ, et al., A normal spinal position: It's time to accept the evidence, J MANIP PHYSIOL THER 23 (9): 623-644 NOV-DEC 2000
10. Gracovetsky, The Spinal Engine, Springer-Varlag: New York, 1988
11. Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Steering Committee, Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, 1972 (p471),
12. Galer, I.A.R., Applied Ergonomics Handbook 2nd Edition, Buttterworth & Co. Publishers Ltd 1987 (p147)
13. Doherty BJ, Heggeness M, The quantitative anatomy of the second cervical vertebra, Spine 20 No 5 pp 513-517 1995
14. Harrison DD, Harrison DE, Janik TJ, Cailliet R, Haas J, Do alterations in vertebral and disc dimensions affect an elliptical model of thoracic kyphosis? Spine, 28 (5):463-469 Mar 2003
15. Krag et al 1988, Morphometry of the thoracic and Lumbar Spine related to transpedicular screw placement for surgical spinal fixation, Spine 13 (1) pp27-32
16. Panjabi MM, Duranceau J, Goel V, Oxland T, Takata K, Cervical Human Vertebrae Quantitative Three-dimensional anatomy of the middle and lower regions, Spine 16 (8) 1991 pp 861-869
17. Panjabi MM, Takata K, Goel V, Federico D, Oxland T, Duranceau J, Krag M, Thoracic Human Vertebrae Quantitative Three-dimensional anatomy, Spine 16 (8) 1991 pp 888-901
18. Panjabi MM, Goel V, Oxland T, Takata K, Duranceau J, Krag M, Price M., Human Lumbar Vertebrae Quantitative Three-dimensional anatomy, Spine 17 (3)1992 pp 299-306
19. Scoles et al 1988, Vertebral body and posterior element morphology: The normal spine in middle life, Spine 13 (10) pp1082-1086
20. Frobin W, Leivseth G, biggerman M, Brinckmann P, Sagittal plane segmental motion of the cervical spine. A new precision measurement protocol and normal motion data of healthy adults, Clinical Biomechanics 17 (1):21-31 Jan 2002
21. Hof AL, Scaling GAIT data to body size, Gait and Posture 4:222–3 (1996)
22. Jason D.R. & Taylor K., Estimation of stature from the length of the cervical, thoracic & lumber segments of the spine in American whites and blacks. J of Forensic Sciences, Vl 40 pp59-62 1995
23. Doherty BJ, Heggeness M, The quantitative anatomy of the atlas, Spine 19 No 22 pp 2497-2500 1994
24. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human motion- part I: Ankle, hip and spine. Journal of Biomechanics 35 (2002) pp 548-548.
25. Heath Survey England 2002, Department of Health.
26. Harrison D D, Janik T J, Troyanovich S, Holland B. Comparisons of the Lordotic Cervical spine curvatures to a theoretical ideal model of the static sagittal cervical spine. Spine Vol. 21, No. 6, March 15, Lippincott-Raven, 1996
27. Harrison DD, DE Harrison, Janik TJ, Cailliet R, Ferrantelli JR, Haas JW, Holland B, Modelling of the sagittal Cervical Spine as a method to Discriminate Hypolordosis Spine Vol 29, No. 22, pp2485-2492, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Inc. 2004
28. Janik T J, Harrison D D, Caillet R, Troyanovich S J, Harrison D E, Can a sagittal lumber model be closely approximated by an ellipse? Journal of Orthopaedic research 16: 766-770, The journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. 1998 Orthopaedic Research Society
29. Francis C, 1955, Dimensions of the Cervical Vertebrae, Anat Rec Vol 122 pp603-9
30. Naderi S, Cakmakci H, Acar F, Arman C, Martol T, Nuri Arda M, Anatomical and computed tomographic analysis of C1 vertebra. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 105 (2003) pp245-248
31. Nissan M & Gilad I, A study of vertebra and disc geometric relations of the human cervical and lumbar spine, Spine 11(2) : 154-157 1986
32. Frobin W, , Brinckmann P, Biggerman M , Tillotson M, Burton K, Precision measuremnt of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumber spine, Clinical Biomechanics 12: S1-S63 Suppl. 1 1997
33. Marty C, et al, The sagittal anatomy of the sacrum among young adults, infants and spondylolisthesis patients, Euro Spine J 2002, 11:119-125
34. Caldwell W.E. & Molloy C., Anotomical Variation of the female pelvis and their effect in labor with a suggested classification, Am J of Obstet. 26 p 479-505, 1933
35. Hanna RE, Washburn SL- Sex determination of the Pelvis, Human Biology Vol 25 Pg 21-27, 1953
36. Martin, R Lehrbuch der anthropoligie. Zweiter Band: Kraniologie, Osteologie. Jana: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer.p1084 ‘Lange, Breite und Langenbreiten 1928
37. Patriquin ML, Steyn M, Loth SR, Metric analysis of sex differences in South African Black and White Pelves, Forensiic Science International 2004
38. Seidel GK, Marchinda DA, Dijkers M, Soutas-Little RW, Hip Joint centre location from palpable bony landmarks- a cadaver study, J Biomchanics, Vol 28, no. 8, pp995-998, 1995
39. Luo Y-C, Sex determination from the pubis by discriminant function analysis, Forensic Science International Vol 74, pp89-98, 1995
40. Genda E, Iwaski N, Li G, Mac Williams B, Barrance PJ, Chao YS, Normal hip joint contact pressure distribution in single-leg standing-effect of gender and anatomic parameters, J of Biomechanics, Vol 34 pp895-9095, 2001
41. Wolf A, Shoham M, Schnider M, Moshe R, Morphometric study of the Human Lumbar Spine for Operation-workspace specifications, Spine 26, No 22 pp2472-2477, 2001
42. Grays anatomy 38th edition, Churchill livingstone ISBN 0-443-04560-7
43. Issac B, Biometry of the posterior border of the human hip bone: normal values and their use in sex determination, J Anat. Soc. India 51 (1) 43-46 (2002)


  • Quantitative Anatomy
  • Anthropometrics
  • Median
  • Skeleton
  • Spine
  • Computer Assisted Design (CAD)


Dive into the research topics of 'Discovering Skeletal Joe Median'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this