Discovering Skeletal Joe Median

Justin Magee, John Winder, Brian Mcclelland

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

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The purpose of this study is to produce an accurate anthropometric reference model, of the median human skeletal anatomy, for posture analysis using computer assisted design (CAD). Also, to determine if a single reference model can be proposed by combining data from existing studies of quantitative anatomy, including the cranium, spine, clavicle and pelvic girdle. A review of existing literature across the disciplines of anthropometrics, ergonomics, clinical anatomy, forensic science, and clinical biomechanics was carried out using books, academic journals, conference proceedings, international standards, government and military reports. Subject selection criteria included white males, from European, American, Middle Eastern, North African and South African sources. Only study samples with documented stature or other scalable references, between the ages of 19-65 years without spinal deformation or degradation were included. These findings were scaled to correspond to 2004 UK median stature data and combined as a process of normalisation. The measurements from existing studies have often been compared to each other, but as the studies have different stature averages, they are not numerically comparable. The current study is more holistic and accurate than existing studies with a resulting reference model, which includes 581 dimensions constructed to a precision of 0.1mm or 0.1° as full scale, 2D engineering drawings with accompanying spreadsheets of normalised dimensions. A resulting static 3D model was produced. This model is easily scaleable for changes identified in ergonomic secular trends. All newly scaled anatomical dimensions still remain closely comparable or confirm findings of other investigators. It was noted no guidelines for dimensioning anatomical data exists. Some recommendations are proposed. An anatomically accurate computer model has been generated which will aid further work in posture analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
EditorsDebkumar Chakrabarti, Abhijit Das
Place of PublicationNew Dehli
PublisherAllied Publishers
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)81-8424-124-0
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2006
EventHumanizing Work and Work Environments (HWWE) 2005 - Institute of Technology Guwahati, India
Duration: 1 Jan 2006 → …


ConferenceHumanizing Work and Work Environments (HWWE) 2005
Period1/01/06 → …
Internet address


  • Quantitative Anatomy
  • Anthropometrics
  • Median
  • Skeleton
  • Spine
  • Computer Assisted Design (CAD)


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