Digital loyalty card 'big data' and small business marketing: Formal versus informal or complementary?

Christina Donnelly, Geoff Simmons, Gillian Armstrong, Andrew Fearne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This article proposes that a complementary relationship exists between the formalised nature of digital loyalty card data, and the informal nature of small business market orientation. A longitudinal, case-based research approach analysed this relationship in small firms given access to Tesco Clubcard data. The findings reveal a new-found structure and precision in small firm marketing planning from data exposure; this complemented rather than conflicted with an intuitive feel for markets. In addition, small firm owners were encouraged to include employees in marketing planning
LanguageEnglish
JournalInternational Small Business Journal
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2013

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Small business
Small firms
Loyalty cards
Business marketing
Marketing planning
Market orientation
Owners
Employees
Business markets

Cite this

@article{8a9d394a05d24212939a5d25d85a6d3c,
title = "Digital loyalty card 'big data' and small business marketing: Formal versus informal or complementary?",
abstract = "This article proposes that a complementary relationship exists between the formalised nature of digital loyalty card data, and the informal nature of small business market orientation. A longitudinal, case-based research approach analysed this relationship in small firms given access to Tesco Clubcard data. The findings reveal a new-found structure and precision in small firm marketing planning from data exposure; this complemented rather than conflicted with an intuitive feel for markets. In addition, small firm owners were encouraged to include employees in marketing planning",
author = "Christina Donnelly and Geoff Simmons and Gillian Armstrong and Andrew Fearne",
note = "Reference text: Alpkan L, Yilmaz C and Kaya N (2007) Market orientation and planning flexibility in SMEs: Performance implications and an empirical investigation. International Small Business Journal 25(2) 152–172. Anstead, J., Samuel, J. and Crofton, A. (2008) dunnhumby- A retailer’s secret weapon. Citi-group Global Market Feeder’s Digest (60): 1–25. Armario JM, Ruiz DM and Armario EM (2008) Market orientation and internationalisation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management 46(4): 485–512. Baker WE and Sinkula JM (2009) The complementary effects of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management 47(4): 443–464. Bhide A (1994) How entrepreneurs craft strategies that work. Harvard Business Review 72(2): 150–61. Blankson C and Omar OE (2002) Marketing practices of African and Caribbean small businesses in London, UK. Qualitative Market Research 5(2): 123–134. Blankson C, Motwani JG and Levenburg NM (2006) Understanding the patterns of market orientation among small businesses. Market Intelligence and Planning 24(6): 572–590. Cacciolatti L, Donnelly C, Fearne A, et al. (2009) Use of supermarket panel data amongst small and medium sized business in the food industry, Academy of Marketing Conference, Leeds, 12–15 July 2009. Carson, D. and Gilmore, A. (2000) Marketing at the interface: Not ‘What’ but ‘How’. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 8(2): 1–7. Carson D, Gilmore A, Perry C, et al. (2001) Qualitative Marketing Research. London: Sage. Clarke J, Thorpe R, Anderson C, et al. (2006) It’s all action, it’s all learning: Action learning in SMEs. Journal of European Industrial Training 30(6): 441–455. Corbett AC (2005) Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 29(4): 473–492. Corti{\~n}as M, Elorz M and M{\'u}gica JM (2008) The use of loyalty cards databases: Differences in regular price and discount sensitivity in the brand choice decision between card and non-card holders. Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services 15(1): 52–62. Downloaded from isb.sagepub.com at University of Ulster Library on November 12, 2013 18 International Small Business Journal 0(0) Covin JG and Slevin DP (1986) The Development and Testing of an Organisational Level Entrepreneurship Scale. Wellesley, MA: Babson College. Day, G.S. (1994) The capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58(October): 37–52. Deshpand{\'e}, R. and Farley, J.U. (1998) Measuring market orientation: Generalization and synthesis. Journal of Market-Focused Management 2(3): 213–32. Dibb S, Simkin L, Pride WM, et al. (2006) Marketing: Concepts and Strategies. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Doern R (2009) Investigating barriers to SME growth and development in transition environments. International Small Business Journal 27(3): 275–305. Donnelly C, Simmons G, Armstrong G, et al. (2012) Marketing planning and digital customer loyalty card data in small business. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 30(5): 515–534. Dunn E (2006) It’s Marketing Jim, But Not As We Know It. London: dunnhumby. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review 14(4): 532–550. Everett C (2009) Loyalty cards: The risks and rewards. Infosecurity 6(5): 17–19. Ghauri PN and Gronhaug K (2005) Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide. Harlow: FT/Prentice. Gibb AA (1997) Small firm’s training and competitiveness: Building upon the small business as a learning organization. International Small Business Journal 11(3): 13–29. Gilmore A and Carson D (1996) Management competencies for services marketing. Journal of Services Marketing 10(3): 39–57. Hansen B and Hamilton RT (2011) Factors distinguishing small firm growers and non-growers. International Small Business Journal 29(3): 278–294. Harrigan P, Ramsey E and Ibbotson P (2011) Critical factors underpinning the e-CRM activities of SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management 27(5–6): 503–529. Harris LC and Watkins P (1998) The impediments to developing a market orientation: An exploratory study of small UK hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 10(6): 221–226. Hingley MK (2005) Power imbalance in UK agri-food supply channels: Learning to live with the supermarkets? Journal of Marketing Management 21(1–2): 62–88. Homburg C and Pflesser C (2000) A multiple-layer model of market-orientated organisational culture: measurement issues and performance outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research 37(4): 449–462. Humby C, Hunt T and Phillips T (2008) Scoring Points: How Tesco Continues to Win Customer Loyalty. London: Kogan. Hurley RF and Hult GT (1998) Innovation, market orientation, and organisational learning: An integration and empirical examination. Journal of Marketing 62: 42–54. Jocumsen G (2004) How do small business managers make strategic marketing decisions? A model of process. European Journal of Marketing 38(5–6): 659–674. Jones O, Macpherson A, Thorpe R, et al. (2007) The evolution of business knowledge in SMEs: Conceptualising strategic space. Strategic Change 16(6): 281–294. Jones R and Rowley J (2011) Entrepreneurial marketing in small businesses: A conceptual exploration. International Small Business Journal 29(1): 25–36. King N (2004) Using templates in the thematic analysis of text, In: Cassell C and Symon G (eds) Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organisational Research. London: Sage, pp. 256–270. Kirchoff BA (1994) Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capitalism: The Economics of a Business Firm Formation and Growth. Westport, CT: Praeger. Kohli AK and Jaworski BJ (1990) Market orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing 54(2): 1–18. Downloaded from isb.sagepub.com at University of Ulster Library on November 12, 2013 Donnelly et al. 19 Kohli AK, Jaworski BJ and Kumar A (1993) MARKOR: A measure of market orientation. Journal of Marketing Research 30(4): 467–477. Kumar V, Jones E, Venkatesan R, et al. (2011) Is market orientation a source of sustainable competitive advantage or simply the cost of competing? Journal of Marketing 75(1): 16–30. Lechner C and Gudmundsson SV (2012) Entrepreneurial orientation, firm strategy and small firm performance, International Small Business Journal. Epub ahead of print, 10 September 2012. DOI: 10.1177/0266242612455034. Lee TS and Tsai HJ (2005) The effects of business operation mode on market orientation, learning orientation and innovativeness. Industrial Management & Data Systems 105(3): 325–348. Lewis C, Pick P and Vickerstaff A (2001) Trappings versus Substance: Market orientation in food and drink SMEs. British Food Journal 103(5): 300–312. Li Y, Zhao Y, Tan J, et al. (2008) Moderating effects of entrepreneurial orientation on market orientation-performance linkage: Evidence from Chinese small firms. Journal of Small Business Management 46(1): 113–133. Liberman-Yaconi L, Hooper T and Hutchings K (2010) Toward a model of understanding strategic decision-making in micro-firms: Exploring the Australian information technology sector. Journal of Small Business Management 48(1): 70–95. Lumpkin GT and Dess GG (1996) Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review 21(1): 135–172. McCarthy B (2003) Strategy is personality-driven, strategy is crisis-driven: Insights from entrepreneurial firms. Management Decision 41(4): 327–339. Martin JH, Martin BA and Minnillo PR (2009) Implementing a market orientation in small manufacturing firms: From cognitive model to action. Journal of Small Business Management 47(1): 92–116. Matsuno, K. and Mentzer, J. T. (2000) The effects of strategy type on the market orientation-performance relationship. Journal of Marketing 64(October): 1–16. Mauri C (2003) Card loyalty: A new emerging issue in grocery retailing. Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services 10(1): 13. Maykut P and Morehouse R (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophical and Practical Guide. London: The Free Press. Miller D and Toulouse JM (1986) Chief executive personality and corporate strategy and structure in small firms. Management Science 32: 1389–1409. Mintzberg, H. (1989) Mintzberg on Management: Inside Our Strange World Of Organizations, New York (NY): The Free Press. Moriarty J, Jones R, Rowley J, et al. (2008) Marketing in small hotels: A qualitative study. Marketing, Intelligence and Planning 26(3): 293–315. Morris T and Wood S (1991) Testing the survey method: Continuity and change. British Industrial Relations 5(2): 259–282. Narver JC and Slater SF (1990) The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing 54(4): 20–35. Nieto MJ and Santamaria L (2010) Technological collaboration: Bridging the innovation gap between small and large firms. Journal of Small Business Management 48(1): 44–69. Northern Ireland Government Report (2010) The Focus on Food Strategy. Belfast: Department of Agriculture and Rural Development/Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment. Patton MQ (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Pelham AM and Wilson DT (1996) Longitudinal study of the impact of market structure, firm structure, strategy, and market orientation culture on dimensions of small-firm performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 24(1): 27–43. Downloaded from isb.sagepub.com at University of Ulster Library on November 12, 2013 20 International Small Business Journal 0(0) Pelham, A.M. (2000) Market orientation and other potential influences on performance in small & medium sized manufacturing firms. Journal of Small Business Management 38(1): 48–67. Perks K (2006) Influences on strategic management styles among fast growing medium-sized firms in France and Germany. Strategic Change 15(3): 153–164. Perry C (1998) Processes of a case study methodology for postgraduate research in marketing. European Journal of Marketing 2(9–10): 785–802. Reige AM and Perry C (2000) National marketing strategies in international travel and tourism. European Journal of Marketing 34(11–12): 1290–1305. Robson C (2002) Real World Research. Oxford: Blackwell. Simmons G (2008) Marketing to postmodern consumers: Introducing the internet chameleon. European Journal of Marketing 42(3–4): 299–310. Simmons G, Armstrong GA and Durkin MG (2008) A conceptualization of the determinants of small business website adoption: Setting the research agenda. International Small Business Journal 26(3): 351–389. Simmons G, Armstrong GA and Durkin MG (2011) An exploration of small business website optimisation: Enablers, influencers and an assessment approach. International Small Business Journal 29(5): 534–561. Simmons G, Thomas B and Truong Y (2010) Managing i-branding to create brand equity. European Journal of Marketing 44(9–10): 1260–1285. Slater, S.F. and Narver, J.C. (1995) Market orientation and the learning organization. Journal of Marketing 59(July): 63–74. Slater, S.F. and Narver J.C. (1999) Market-oriented is more than being customer-led. Strategic Management Journal 20(12): 1165–1168. Slater, S.F. and Narver, J.C. (2000) Intelligence generation and superior customer value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28(1): 120–127. Smith A and Sparks L (2009) It’s nice to get a wee treat if you’ve had a bad week: Consumer motivations in retail loyalty scheme points redemption. Current Issues in Retailing: Relationships and Emerging Opportunities 62(5) 542–547. Sorensen HE (2009) Why competitors matter for market orientation. European Journal of Marketing 43(5–6): 735–761. Stavros C and Westberg K (2009) Using triangulation and multiple case studies to advance relationship marketing theory. Qualitative Market Research 12(3): 307–320. Stokes D (2000) Putting entrepreneurship into marketing: The processes of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Research in Marketing & Entrepreneurship 2(1): 1–16. Truong KP, Poppe RW, de Kok LA, et al. (2011) A multimodal analysis of vocal and visual backchannels in spontaneous dialogs. Proc Interspeech 2973–2976. Turner JJ and Wilson K (2006) Grocery loyalty: Tesco Clubcard and its impact on loyalty. British Food Journal 108(11): 258–264. Vaghely IP and Julien P-A (2010) Are opportunities recognized or constructed? An information perspective on entrepreneurial opportunity identification. Journal of Business Venturing 25(1): 73–86. Weick (1995) Sensemaking in Organizations, Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage. Wilson NC and Stokes D (2004) Laments and serenades: Relationship marketing and legitimation strategies for the cultural entrepreneur. Qualitative Market Research 17(3): 218–227. Wright C and Sparks L (1999) Loyalty saturation in retailing: Exploring the end of retail loyalty cards. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 27(10): 429–439. Zahra, S.A. (2008) Being entrepreneurial and market-driven: implications for company performance. Journal of Strategy and Management 1(2): 125–142. Ziliani C and Bellini S (2004) From loyalty cards to micro-marketing strategies: Where is Europe’s retail industry heading? Journal of Targeting, Measurement & Analysis for Marketing 12(3): 281–289. Downloaded from",
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Digital loyalty card 'big data' and small business marketing: Formal versus informal or complementary? / Donnelly, Christina; Simmons, Geoff; Armstrong, Gillian; Fearne, Andrew.

In: International Small Business Journal, 01.10.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N1 - Reference text: Alpkan L, Yilmaz C and Kaya N (2007) Market orientation and planning flexibility in SMEs: Performance implications and an empirical investigation. International Small Business Journal 25(2) 152–172. Anstead, J., Samuel, J. and Crofton, A. (2008) dunnhumby- A retailer’s secret weapon. Citi-group Global Market Feeder’s Digest (60): 1–25. Armario JM, Ruiz DM and Armario EM (2008) Market orientation and internationalisation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management 46(4): 485–512. Baker WE and Sinkula JM (2009) The complementary effects of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management 47(4): 443–464. Bhide A (1994) How entrepreneurs craft strategies that work. Harvard Business Review 72(2): 150–61. Blankson C and Omar OE (2002) Marketing practices of African and Caribbean small businesses in London, UK. Qualitative Market Research 5(2): 123–134. Blankson C, Motwani JG and Levenburg NM (2006) Understanding the patterns of market orientation among small businesses. Market Intelligence and Planning 24(6): 572–590. Cacciolatti L, Donnelly C, Fearne A, et al. (2009) Use of supermarket panel data amongst small and medium sized business in the food industry, Academy of Marketing Conference, Leeds, 12–15 July 2009. Carson, D. and Gilmore, A. (2000) Marketing at the interface: Not ‘What’ but ‘How’. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 8(2): 1–7. Carson D, Gilmore A, Perry C, et al. (2001) Qualitative Marketing Research. London: Sage. Clarke J, Thorpe R, Anderson C, et al. (2006) It’s all action, it’s all learning: Action learning in SMEs. Journal of European Industrial Training 30(6): 441–455. Corbett AC (2005) Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 29(4): 473–492. Cortiñas M, Elorz M and Múgica JM (2008) The use of loyalty cards databases: Differences in regular price and discount sensitivity in the brand choice decision between card and non-card holders. Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services 15(1): 52–62. Downloaded from isb.sagepub.com at University of Ulster Library on November 12, 2013 18 International Small Business Journal 0(0) Covin JG and Slevin DP (1986) The Development and Testing of an Organisational Level Entrepreneurship Scale. Wellesley, MA: Babson College. Day, G.S. (1994) The capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58(October): 37–52. Deshpandé, R. and Farley, J.U. (1998) Measuring market orientation: Generalization and synthesis. Journal of Market-Focused Management 2(3): 213–32. Dibb S, Simkin L, Pride WM, et al. (2006) Marketing: Concepts and Strategies. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Doern R (2009) Investigating barriers to SME growth and development in transition environments. International Small Business Journal 27(3): 275–305. Donnelly C, Simmons G, Armstrong G, et al. (2012) Marketing planning and digital customer loyalty card data in small business. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 30(5): 515–534. Dunn E (2006) It’s Marketing Jim, But Not As We Know It. London: dunnhumby. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review 14(4): 532–550. Everett C (2009) Loyalty cards: The risks and rewards. Infosecurity 6(5): 17–19. Ghauri PN and Gronhaug K (2005) Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide. Harlow: FT/Prentice. Gibb AA (1997) Small firm’s training and competitiveness: Building upon the small business as a learning organization. International Small Business Journal 11(3): 13–29. Gilmore A and Carson D (1996) Management competencies for services marketing. Journal of Services Marketing 10(3): 39–57. Hansen B and Hamilton RT (2011) Factors distinguishing small firm growers and non-growers. International Small Business Journal 29(3): 278–294. Harrigan P, Ramsey E and Ibbotson P (2011) Critical factors underpinning the e-CRM activities of SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management 27(5–6): 503–529. Harris LC and Watkins P (1998) The impediments to developing a market orientation: An exploratory study of small UK hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 10(6): 221–226. Hingley MK (2005) Power imbalance in UK agri-food supply channels: Learning to live with the supermarkets? Journal of Marketing Management 21(1–2): 62–88. Homburg C and Pflesser C (2000) A multiple-layer model of market-orientated organisational culture: measurement issues and performance outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research 37(4): 449–462. Humby C, Hunt T and Phillips T (2008) Scoring Points: How Tesco Continues to Win Customer Loyalty. London: Kogan. Hurley RF and Hult GT (1998) Innovation, market orientation, and organisational learning: An integration and empirical examination. Journal of Marketing 62: 42–54. Jocumsen G (2004) How do small business managers make strategic marketing decisions? A model of process. European Journal of Marketing 38(5–6): 659–674. Jones O, Macpherson A, Thorpe R, et al. (2007) The evolution of business knowledge in SMEs: Conceptualising strategic space. Strategic Change 16(6): 281–294. Jones R and Rowley J (2011) Entrepreneurial marketing in small businesses: A conceptual exploration. International Small Business Journal 29(1): 25–36. King N (2004) Using templates in the thematic analysis of text, In: Cassell C and Symon G (eds) Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organisational Research. London: Sage, pp. 256–270. Kirchoff BA (1994) Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capitalism: The Economics of a Business Firm Formation and Growth. Westport, CT: Praeger. Kohli AK and Jaworski BJ (1990) Market orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing 54(2): 1–18. Downloaded from isb.sagepub.com at University of Ulster Library on November 12, 2013 Donnelly et al. 19 Kohli AK, Jaworski BJ and Kumar A (1993) MARKOR: A measure of market orientation. Journal of Marketing Research 30(4): 467–477. Kumar V, Jones E, Venkatesan R, et al. (2011) Is market orientation a source of sustainable competitive advantage or simply the cost of competing? Journal of Marketing 75(1): 16–30. Lechner C and Gudmundsson SV (2012) Entrepreneurial orientation, firm strategy and small firm performance, International Small Business Journal. Epub ahead of print, 10 September 2012. DOI: 10.1177/0266242612455034. Lee TS and Tsai HJ (2005) The effects of business operation mode on market orientation, learning orientation and innovativeness. Industrial Management & Data Systems 105(3): 325–348. Lewis C, Pick P and Vickerstaff A (2001) Trappings versus Substance: Market orientation in food and drink SMEs. British Food Journal 103(5): 300–312. Li Y, Zhao Y, Tan J, et al. (2008) Moderating effects of entrepreneurial orientation on market orientation-performance linkage: Evidence from Chinese small firms. Journal of Small Business Management 46(1): 113–133. Liberman-Yaconi L, Hooper T and Hutchings K (2010) Toward a model of understanding strategic decision-making in micro-firms: Exploring the Australian information technology sector. Journal of Small Business Management 48(1): 70–95. Lumpkin GT and Dess GG (1996) Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review 21(1): 135–172. McCarthy B (2003) Strategy is personality-driven, strategy is crisis-driven: Insights from entrepreneurial firms. Management Decision 41(4): 327–339. Martin JH, Martin BA and Minnillo PR (2009) Implementing a market orientation in small manufacturing firms: From cognitive model to action. Journal of Small Business Management 47(1): 92–116. Matsuno, K. and Mentzer, J. T. (2000) The effects of strategy type on the market orientation-performance relationship. Journal of Marketing 64(October): 1–16. Mauri C (2003) Card loyalty: A new emerging issue in grocery retailing. Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services 10(1): 13. Maykut P and Morehouse R (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophical and Practical Guide. London: The Free Press. Miller D and Toulouse JM (1986) Chief executive personality and corporate strategy and structure in small firms. Management Science 32: 1389–1409. Mintzberg, H. (1989) Mintzberg on Management: Inside Our Strange World Of Organizations, New York (NY): The Free Press. Moriarty J, Jones R, Rowley J, et al. (2008) Marketing in small hotels: A qualitative study. Marketing, Intelligence and Planning 26(3): 293–315. Morris T and Wood S (1991) Testing the survey method: Continuity and change. British Industrial Relations 5(2): 259–282. Narver JC and Slater SF (1990) The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing 54(4): 20–35. Nieto MJ and Santamaria L (2010) Technological collaboration: Bridging the innovation gap between small and large firms. Journal of Small Business Management 48(1): 44–69. Northern Ireland Government Report (2010) The Focus on Food Strategy. Belfast: Department of Agriculture and Rural Development/Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment. Patton MQ (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Pelham AM and Wilson DT (1996) Longitudinal study of the impact of market structure, firm structure, strategy, and market orientation culture on dimensions of small-firm performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 24(1): 27–43. Downloaded from isb.sagepub.com at University of Ulster Library on November 12, 2013 20 International Small Business Journal 0(0) Pelham, A.M. (2000) Market orientation and other potential influences on performance in small & medium sized manufacturing firms. Journal of Small Business Management 38(1): 48–67. Perks K (2006) Influences on strategic management styles among fast growing medium-sized firms in France and Germany. Strategic Change 15(3): 153–164. Perry C (1998) Processes of a case study methodology for postgraduate research in marketing. European Journal of Marketing 2(9–10): 785–802. Reige AM and Perry C (2000) National marketing strategies in international travel and tourism. European Journal of Marketing 34(11–12): 1290–1305. Robson C (2002) Real World Research. Oxford: Blackwell. Simmons G (2008) Marketing to postmodern consumers: Introducing the internet chameleon. European Journal of Marketing 42(3–4): 299–310. Simmons G, Armstrong GA and Durkin MG (2008) A conceptualization of the determinants of small business website adoption: Setting the research agenda. International Small Business Journal 26(3): 351–389. Simmons G, Armstrong GA and Durkin MG (2011) An exploration of small business website optimisation: Enablers, influencers and an assessment approach. International Small Business Journal 29(5): 534–561. Simmons G, Thomas B and Truong Y (2010) Managing i-branding to create brand equity. European Journal of Marketing 44(9–10): 1260–1285. Slater, S.F. and Narver, J.C. (1995) Market orientation and the learning organization. Journal of Marketing 59(July): 63–74. Slater, S.F. and Narver J.C. (1999) Market-oriented is more than being customer-led. Strategic Management Journal 20(12): 1165–1168. Slater, S.F. and Narver, J.C. (2000) Intelligence generation and superior customer value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28(1): 120–127. Smith A and Sparks L (2009) It’s nice to get a wee treat if you’ve had a bad week: Consumer motivations in retail loyalty scheme points redemption. Current Issues in Retailing: Relationships and Emerging Opportunities 62(5) 542–547. Sorensen HE (2009) Why competitors matter for market orientation. European Journal of Marketing 43(5–6): 735–761. Stavros C and Westberg K (2009) Using triangulation and multiple case studies to advance relationship marketing theory. Qualitative Market Research 12(3): 307–320. Stokes D (2000) Putting entrepreneurship into marketing: The processes of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Research in Marketing & Entrepreneurship 2(1): 1–16. Truong KP, Poppe RW, de Kok LA, et al. (2011) A multimodal analysis of vocal and visual backchannels in spontaneous dialogs. Proc Interspeech 2973–2976. Turner JJ and Wilson K (2006) Grocery loyalty: Tesco Clubcard and its impact on loyalty. British Food Journal 108(11): 258–264. Vaghely IP and Julien P-A (2010) Are opportunities recognized or constructed? An information perspective on entrepreneurial opportunity identification. Journal of Business Venturing 25(1): 73–86. Weick (1995) Sensemaking in Organizations, Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage. Wilson NC and Stokes D (2004) Laments and serenades: Relationship marketing and legitimation strategies for the cultural entrepreneur. Qualitative Market Research 17(3): 218–227. Wright C and Sparks L (1999) Loyalty saturation in retailing: Exploring the end of retail loyalty cards. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 27(10): 429–439. Zahra, S.A. (2008) Being entrepreneurial and market-driven: implications for company performance. Journal of Strategy and Management 1(2): 125–142. Ziliani C and Bellini S (2004) From loyalty cards to micro-marketing strategies: Where is Europe’s retail industry heading? Journal of Targeting, Measurement & Analysis for Marketing 12(3): 281–289. Downloaded from

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N2 - This article proposes that a complementary relationship exists between the formalised nature of digital loyalty card data, and the informal nature of small business market orientation. A longitudinal, case-based research approach analysed this relationship in small firms given access to Tesco Clubcard data. The findings reveal a new-found structure and precision in small firm marketing planning from data exposure; this complemented rather than conflicted with an intuitive feel for markets. In addition, small firm owners were encouraged to include employees in marketing planning

AB - This article proposes that a complementary relationship exists between the formalised nature of digital loyalty card data, and the informal nature of small business market orientation. A longitudinal, case-based research approach analysed this relationship in small firms given access to Tesco Clubcard data. The findings reveal a new-found structure and precision in small firm marketing planning from data exposure; this complemented rather than conflicted with an intuitive feel for markets. In addition, small firm owners were encouraged to include employees in marketing planning

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