Digital citizenship from below: Turkish State versus Youtube

Murat Akser, Banu Baybars Hawks

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    YouTube.com was banned in Turkey by several court orders on March 6, 2007. Through a series of on and off court orders the ban was lifted and reinstated multiple times. The ban was lifted on October 30, 2010 and reinstated again on March 27, 2014, this time remaining in force until December 25, 2016. All in all, access to YouTube was denied to Turkish public for nearly seven years within a decade spanning between 2007-2016. During this time Turkish Telecommunications Board blocked all access on the internet to the YouTube site. Yet Turkish citizens found several innovative digital ways to bypass this ban. At the same time several citizens’ rights groups were formed that question the legal, ethical and political aspects of the ban. On the legal side, citizen rights groups took the ban to court to appeal this ban on the national level eventually overturning it through Turkish Constitutional court. At the international level scholars and common citizens alike expressed their concern for freedom of expression of citizens in a democratic polity. On the ethical side, Turkish citizens willfully and knowingly bypassed this ban and exercised their right for freedom of expression without feeling the guilt and remorse of an illegal activity thus displaying a quality required for establishment of an autonomous public sphere and civil society that fills this sphere. Politically, this counter reaction to government censorship policies is a result of EU freedom of speech process initiated by citizens rather than state elites. There are other types of internet bans still in place in Turkey such as Wikipedia ban which was imposed on 29 April 2017. This study aims to give a historically situated analysis of the situation as seen by Turkish internet users using content and discourse analysis of different Turkish online citizen activities during the first ban period between 2007-10. The content is used from online Turkish anonymous user platform, eksi sozluk, (sour dictionary) is used to test whether there is civil society response to the ban which both parties claimed to be testing the density and frequency of this response.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020
    Subtitle of host publicationSustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth
    EditorsKhalid S. Soliman
    Pages5592-5600
    Number of pages9
    ISBN (Electronic)9780999855119
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
    Event32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Seville, Spain
    Duration: 15 Nov 201816 Nov 2018

    Conference

    Conference32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018
    CountrySpain
    CitySeville
    Period15/11/1816/11/18

    Fingerprint

    Internet
    Glossaries
    Telecommunication
    Testing
    Citizenship
    World Wide Web
    Freedom of Speech
    Civil society
    Turkey

    Keywords

    • YouTube
    • media
    • communication
    • censorship
    • Turkey

    Cite this

    Akser, M., & Baybars Hawks, B. (2019). Digital citizenship from below: Turkish State versus Youtube. In K. S. Soliman (Ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth (pp. 5592-5600)
    Akser, Murat ; Baybars Hawks, Banu. / Digital citizenship from below : Turkish State versus Youtube. Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth. editor / Khalid S. Soliman. 2019. pp. 5592-5600
    @inproceedings{8e35b42a7c144893aeb52cf65cd15f68,
    title = "Digital citizenship from below: Turkish State versus Youtube",
    abstract = "YouTube.com was banned in Turkey by several court orders on March 6, 2007. Through a series of on and off court orders the ban was lifted and reinstated multiple times. The ban was lifted on October 30, 2010 and reinstated again on March 27, 2014, this time remaining in force until December 25, 2016. All in all, access to YouTube was denied to Turkish public for nearly seven years within a decade spanning between 2007-2016. During this time Turkish Telecommunications Board blocked all access on the internet to the YouTube site. Yet Turkish citizens found several innovative digital ways to bypass this ban. At the same time several citizens’ rights groups were formed that question the legal, ethical and political aspects of the ban. On the legal side, citizen rights groups took the ban to court to appeal this ban on the national level eventually overturning it through Turkish Constitutional court. At the international level scholars and common citizens alike expressed their concern for freedom of expression of citizens in a democratic polity. On the ethical side, Turkish citizens willfully and knowingly bypassed this ban and exercised their right for freedom of expression without feeling the guilt and remorse of an illegal activity thus displaying a quality required for establishment of an autonomous public sphere and civil society that fills this sphere. Politically, this counter reaction to government censorship policies is a result of EU freedom of speech process initiated by citizens rather than state elites. There are other types of internet bans still in place in Turkey such as Wikipedia ban which was imposed on 29 April 2017. This study aims to give a historically situated analysis of the situation as seen by Turkish internet users using content and discourse analysis of different Turkish online citizen activities during the first ban period between 2007-10. The content is used from online Turkish anonymous user platform, eksi sozluk, (sour dictionary) is used to test whether there is civil society response to the ban which both parties claimed to be testing the density and frequency of this response.",
    keywords = "YouTube, media, communication, censorship, Turkey",
    author = "Murat Akser and {Baybars Hawks}, Banu",
    year = "2019",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "978-0-9998551-1-9",
    pages = "5592--5600",
    editor = "Soliman, {Khalid S.}",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020",

    }

    Akser, M & Baybars Hawks, B 2019, Digital citizenship from below: Turkish State versus Youtube. in KS Soliman (ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth. pp. 5592-5600, 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018, Seville, Spain, 15/11/18.

    Digital citizenship from below : Turkish State versus Youtube. / Akser, Murat; Baybars Hawks, Banu.

    Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth. ed. / Khalid S. Soliman. 2019. p. 5592-5600.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Digital citizenship from below

    T2 - Turkish State versus Youtube

    AU - Akser, Murat

    AU - Baybars Hawks, Banu

    PY - 2019/1/1

    Y1 - 2019/1/1

    N2 - YouTube.com was banned in Turkey by several court orders on March 6, 2007. Through a series of on and off court orders the ban was lifted and reinstated multiple times. The ban was lifted on October 30, 2010 and reinstated again on March 27, 2014, this time remaining in force until December 25, 2016. All in all, access to YouTube was denied to Turkish public for nearly seven years within a decade spanning between 2007-2016. During this time Turkish Telecommunications Board blocked all access on the internet to the YouTube site. Yet Turkish citizens found several innovative digital ways to bypass this ban. At the same time several citizens’ rights groups were formed that question the legal, ethical and political aspects of the ban. On the legal side, citizen rights groups took the ban to court to appeal this ban on the national level eventually overturning it through Turkish Constitutional court. At the international level scholars and common citizens alike expressed their concern for freedom of expression of citizens in a democratic polity. On the ethical side, Turkish citizens willfully and knowingly bypassed this ban and exercised their right for freedom of expression without feeling the guilt and remorse of an illegal activity thus displaying a quality required for establishment of an autonomous public sphere and civil society that fills this sphere. Politically, this counter reaction to government censorship policies is a result of EU freedom of speech process initiated by citizens rather than state elites. There are other types of internet bans still in place in Turkey such as Wikipedia ban which was imposed on 29 April 2017. This study aims to give a historically situated analysis of the situation as seen by Turkish internet users using content and discourse analysis of different Turkish online citizen activities during the first ban period between 2007-10. The content is used from online Turkish anonymous user platform, eksi sozluk, (sour dictionary) is used to test whether there is civil society response to the ban which both parties claimed to be testing the density and frequency of this response.

    AB - YouTube.com was banned in Turkey by several court orders on March 6, 2007. Through a series of on and off court orders the ban was lifted and reinstated multiple times. The ban was lifted on October 30, 2010 and reinstated again on March 27, 2014, this time remaining in force until December 25, 2016. All in all, access to YouTube was denied to Turkish public for nearly seven years within a decade spanning between 2007-2016. During this time Turkish Telecommunications Board blocked all access on the internet to the YouTube site. Yet Turkish citizens found several innovative digital ways to bypass this ban. At the same time several citizens’ rights groups were formed that question the legal, ethical and political aspects of the ban. On the legal side, citizen rights groups took the ban to court to appeal this ban on the national level eventually overturning it through Turkish Constitutional court. At the international level scholars and common citizens alike expressed their concern for freedom of expression of citizens in a democratic polity. On the ethical side, Turkish citizens willfully and knowingly bypassed this ban and exercised their right for freedom of expression without feeling the guilt and remorse of an illegal activity thus displaying a quality required for establishment of an autonomous public sphere and civil society that fills this sphere. Politically, this counter reaction to government censorship policies is a result of EU freedom of speech process initiated by citizens rather than state elites. There are other types of internet bans still in place in Turkey such as Wikipedia ban which was imposed on 29 April 2017. This study aims to give a historically situated analysis of the situation as seen by Turkish internet users using content and discourse analysis of different Turkish online citizen activities during the first ban period between 2007-10. The content is used from online Turkish anonymous user platform, eksi sozluk, (sour dictionary) is used to test whether there is civil society response to the ban which both parties claimed to be testing the density and frequency of this response.

    KW - YouTube

    KW - media

    KW - communication

    KW - censorship

    KW - Turkey

    UR - https://ibima.org/conference/32nd-ibima-conference/

    UR - https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/searchAll/index/?search=71298732&pageSize=25&showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&searchBy=PartOfNameOrTitle

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SN - 978-0-9998551-1-9

    SP - 5592

    EP - 5600

    BT - Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020

    A2 - Soliman, Khalid S.

    ER -

    Akser M, Baybars Hawks B. Digital citizenship from below: Turkish State versus Youtube. In Soliman KS, editor, Proceedings of the 32nd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018 - Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic Development and Application of Innovation Management from Regional expansion to Global Growth. 2019. p. 5592-5600