Differences in the structure of variability in ground reaction force trajectories provide additional information about variability in the golf swing

Kristian Jones, Eric S. Wallace, Steve R Otto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The study presents a novel application of measures of the structure of variability to ground reaction force trajectories and highlights the use of such measures to provide valuable information about coordination of the golf swing. The variability
and regularity of ground reaction force trajectories were quantified for iron and driver shots from three participants with different skill levels. Pointwise median absolute deviation was used to indicate the variability of ground reaction force trajectories across their length, and two alternative methodologies, sample entropy and cross-sample entropy, were used to determine their regularity. For both driver and iron shots, results showed that while there was no difference in the magnitude of variability between any of the participants, there were differences in the structure of this variability. In general, the ground reaction force of the highest skilled participant was significantly more regular than that
of the lesser skilled golfers. However, differences occurred across the various components of ground reaction force. Thus, entropy measures can provide additional valuable information concerning dissimilarities among golfers of various skill levels and may indicate differences in neuromuscular system coordination during the golf swing. This study highlights the importance of considering the structure of variability, as well as its magnitude, and describes methods which could be applied to further investigations
LanguageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sports Engineering
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 16 Mar 2018

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entropy
trajectory
iron
methodology
golf
co-ordination
method

Keywords

  • Golf
  • ground reaction forces
  • variability
  • sample entropy
  • cross-sample entropy

Cite this

@article{1c6fa3a614b54497b77297b0e1f5e64e,
title = "Differences in the structure of variability in ground reaction force trajectories provide additional information about variability in the golf swing",
abstract = "The study presents a novel application of measures of the structure of variability to ground reaction force trajectories and highlights the use of such measures to provide valuable information about coordination of the golf swing. The variabilityand regularity of ground reaction force trajectories were quantified for iron and driver shots from three participants with different skill levels. Pointwise median absolute deviation was used to indicate the variability of ground reaction force trajectories across their length, and two alternative methodologies, sample entropy and cross-sample entropy, were used to determine their regularity. For both driver and iron shots, results showed that while there was no difference in the magnitude of variability between any of the participants, there were differences in the structure of this variability. In general, the ground reaction force of the highest skilled participant was significantly more regular than thatof the lesser skilled golfers. However, differences occurred across the various components of ground reaction force. Thus, entropy measures can provide additional valuable information concerning dissimilarities among golfers of various skill levels and may indicate differences in neuromuscular system coordination during the golf swing. This study highlights the importance of considering the structure of variability, as well as its magnitude, and describes methods which could be applied to further investigations",
keywords = "Golf, ground reaction forces, variability, sample entropy, cross-sample entropy",
author = "Kristian Jones and Wallace, {Eric S.} and Otto, {Steve R}",
note = "1. Newell KM, Deutsch KM and Slifkin AB. Variability in motor output as noise: a default and erroneous proposition? In: Davids K, Bennett S and Newell KM (eds) Movement system variability. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2006, pp.3–23. 2. Bartlett RM, Wheat J and Robins M. Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists? Sport Biomech 2007; 6(2): 224–243. 3. Preatoni E, Hamill J, Harrison AJ, et al. Movement variability and skills monitoring in sports. Sport Biomech 2013; 12(2): 69–92. 4. Bernstein NA. The co-ordination and regulation of movements. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1967. 5. Latash ML. The bliss of motor abundance. Exp Brain Res 2012; 217(1): 1–5. 6. Van Emmerik RE, Ducharme SW, Amado AC, et al. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis. J Sport Health Sci 2016; 5: 3–13. 7. Hamill J, van Emmerik RE, Heiderscheit BC, et al. A dynamical systems approach to lower extremity running injuries. Clin Biomech 1999; 14: 297–308. 8. Harbourne RT and Stergiou N. Movement variability and the use of nonlinear tools: principles to guide physical therapist practice. Phys Ther 2009; 89(3): 267–282. 9. Stergiou N. Nonlinear analysis for human movement variability. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016. 10. Preatoni E, Ferrario M, Dona G, et al. Motor variability in sports: a non-linear analysis of race walking. J Sport Sci 2010; 28(12): 1327–1336. 11. Betzler NF, Monk SA, Wallace ES, et al. Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. J Sport Sci 2012; 30(5): 439– 448. 12. Morrison A, McGrath D and Wallace ES. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing. Hum Movement Sci 2016; 46: 129–147. 13. Barrentine, SW, Fleisig, GS & Johnson, H. Ground reaction forces and torques of professional and amateur golfers. In: Farrally MR, Cochran AJ (eds). Science and Golf II: Procedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf; 1994; St Andrews. London: E & FN Spon. 14. Betzler NF, Monk SA, Wallace ES, et al. The relationships between driver clubhead presentation characteristics, ball launch conditions and golf shot outcomes. Proc IMechE, Part P: J Sports Engineering and Technology 2014; 228(4): 242–249. 15. Ball KA and Best RJ. Different centre of pressure patterns within the golf stroke I: cluster analysis. J Sport Sci 2007; 25(7): 757–770. 16. Richman JS and Moorman JR. Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy. Am J Physiol: Heart C 2000; 278: H2039–H2049. 17. Decker LM, Cignetti F and Stergiou N. Wearing a safety harness during treadmill walking influences lower extremity kinematics mainly through changes in ankle regularity and local stability. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2012; 9: 8. 18. Mei Z, Zhao G, Ivanov K, et al. Sample entropy characteristics of movement for four foot types based on plantar centre of pressure during stance phase. Biomed Eng Online 2013; 12(1): 101. 19. Pincus SM and Singer BH. Randomness and degrees of irregularity. P Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 93: 2083–2088. 20. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, MI: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988. 21. Lamoth CJ, van Deudekom FJ, van Campen JP, et al. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2011; 8: 2. 22. Lamoth CJ and Heuvelen MJ. Sports activities are reflected in the local stability and regularity of body sway: older ice-skaters have better postural control than inactive elderly. Gait Posture 2012; 35(3): 489–493. 23. Vaillancourt DE, Slifkin AB and Newell KM. Regularity of force tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neurophysiol 2001; 112(9): 1594–1603.",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
day = "16",
language = "English",
journal = "Sports Engineering",
issn = "1369-7072",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Differences in the structure of variability in ground reaction force trajectories provide additional information about variability in the golf swing

AU - Jones, Kristian

AU - Wallace, Eric S.

AU - Otto, Steve R

N1 - 1. Newell KM, Deutsch KM and Slifkin AB. Variability in motor output as noise: a default and erroneous proposition? In: Davids K, Bennett S and Newell KM (eds) Movement system variability. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2006, pp.3–23. 2. Bartlett RM, Wheat J and Robins M. Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists? Sport Biomech 2007; 6(2): 224–243. 3. Preatoni E, Hamill J, Harrison AJ, et al. Movement variability and skills monitoring in sports. Sport Biomech 2013; 12(2): 69–92. 4. Bernstein NA. The co-ordination and regulation of movements. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1967. 5. Latash ML. The bliss of motor abundance. Exp Brain Res 2012; 217(1): 1–5. 6. Van Emmerik RE, Ducharme SW, Amado AC, et al. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis. J Sport Health Sci 2016; 5: 3–13. 7. Hamill J, van Emmerik RE, Heiderscheit BC, et al. A dynamical systems approach to lower extremity running injuries. Clin Biomech 1999; 14: 297–308. 8. Harbourne RT and Stergiou N. Movement variability and the use of nonlinear tools: principles to guide physical therapist practice. Phys Ther 2009; 89(3): 267–282. 9. Stergiou N. Nonlinear analysis for human movement variability. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016. 10. Preatoni E, Ferrario M, Dona G, et al. Motor variability in sports: a non-linear analysis of race walking. J Sport Sci 2010; 28(12): 1327–1336. 11. Betzler NF, Monk SA, Wallace ES, et al. Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. J Sport Sci 2012; 30(5): 439– 448. 12. Morrison A, McGrath D and Wallace ES. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing. Hum Movement Sci 2016; 46: 129–147. 13. Barrentine, SW, Fleisig, GS & Johnson, H. Ground reaction forces and torques of professional and amateur golfers. In: Farrally MR, Cochran AJ (eds). Science and Golf II: Procedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf; 1994; St Andrews. London: E & FN Spon. 14. Betzler NF, Monk SA, Wallace ES, et al. The relationships between driver clubhead presentation characteristics, ball launch conditions and golf shot outcomes. Proc IMechE, Part P: J Sports Engineering and Technology 2014; 228(4): 242–249. 15. Ball KA and Best RJ. Different centre of pressure patterns within the golf stroke I: cluster analysis. J Sport Sci 2007; 25(7): 757–770. 16. Richman JS and Moorman JR. Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy. Am J Physiol: Heart C 2000; 278: H2039–H2049. 17. Decker LM, Cignetti F and Stergiou N. Wearing a safety harness during treadmill walking influences lower extremity kinematics mainly through changes in ankle regularity and local stability. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2012; 9: 8. 18. Mei Z, Zhao G, Ivanov K, et al. Sample entropy characteristics of movement for four foot types based on plantar centre of pressure during stance phase. Biomed Eng Online 2013; 12(1): 101. 19. Pincus SM and Singer BH. Randomness and degrees of irregularity. P Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 93: 2083–2088. 20. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, MI: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988. 21. Lamoth CJ, van Deudekom FJ, van Campen JP, et al. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2011; 8: 2. 22. Lamoth CJ and Heuvelen MJ. Sports activities are reflected in the local stability and regularity of body sway: older ice-skaters have better postural control than inactive elderly. Gait Posture 2012; 35(3): 489–493. 23. Vaillancourt DE, Slifkin AB and Newell KM. Regularity of force tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neurophysiol 2001; 112(9): 1594–1603.

PY - 2018/3/16

Y1 - 2018/3/16

N2 - The study presents a novel application of measures of the structure of variability to ground reaction force trajectories and highlights the use of such measures to provide valuable information about coordination of the golf swing. The variabilityand regularity of ground reaction force trajectories were quantified for iron and driver shots from three participants with different skill levels. Pointwise median absolute deviation was used to indicate the variability of ground reaction force trajectories across their length, and two alternative methodologies, sample entropy and cross-sample entropy, were used to determine their regularity. For both driver and iron shots, results showed that while there was no difference in the magnitude of variability between any of the participants, there were differences in the structure of this variability. In general, the ground reaction force of the highest skilled participant was significantly more regular than thatof the lesser skilled golfers. However, differences occurred across the various components of ground reaction force. Thus, entropy measures can provide additional valuable information concerning dissimilarities among golfers of various skill levels and may indicate differences in neuromuscular system coordination during the golf swing. This study highlights the importance of considering the structure of variability, as well as its magnitude, and describes methods which could be applied to further investigations

AB - The study presents a novel application of measures of the structure of variability to ground reaction force trajectories and highlights the use of such measures to provide valuable information about coordination of the golf swing. The variabilityand regularity of ground reaction force trajectories were quantified for iron and driver shots from three participants with different skill levels. Pointwise median absolute deviation was used to indicate the variability of ground reaction force trajectories across their length, and two alternative methodologies, sample entropy and cross-sample entropy, were used to determine their regularity. For both driver and iron shots, results showed that while there was no difference in the magnitude of variability between any of the participants, there were differences in the structure of this variability. In general, the ground reaction force of the highest skilled participant was significantly more regular than thatof the lesser skilled golfers. However, differences occurred across the various components of ground reaction force. Thus, entropy measures can provide additional valuable information concerning dissimilarities among golfers of various skill levels and may indicate differences in neuromuscular system coordination during the golf swing. This study highlights the importance of considering the structure of variability, as well as its magnitude, and describes methods which could be applied to further investigations

KW - Golf

KW - ground reaction forces

KW - variability

KW - sample entropy

KW - cross-sample entropy

M3 - Article

JO - Sports Engineering

T2 - Sports Engineering

JF - Sports Engineering

SN - 1369-7072

ER -