Diets, nutrients, genes and the microbiome: Recent advances in personalised nutrition: Recent advances in personalised nutrition

Nathan Matusheski, Aoife Caffrey, Lars Christensen, Simon Mezgec, Shelini Surendran, Mads F. Hjorth, H McNulty, K. Pentieva, Henrik M. Roager, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Karani Santhanakrishnan Vimaleswaran, Marcus Remmers, Szabolcs Peter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

As individuals seek increasingly individualised nutrition and lifestyle guidance, numerous apps
and nutrition programs have emerged. However, complex individual variations in dietary
behaviours, genotypes, gene expression and composition of the microbiome are increasingly
recognised. Advances in digital tools and artificial intelligence can help individuals more easily
track nutrient intakes and identify nutritional gaps. However, the influence of these nutrients on
health outcomes can vary widely among individuals depending upon life stage, genetics and
microbial composition. For example, folate may elicit favourable epigenetic effects on brain
development during a critical developmental time window of pregnancy. Genes affecting vitamin
B12 metabolism may lead to cardiometabolic traits that play an essential role in the context of
obesity. Finally, an individual’s gut microbial composition can determine their response to
dietary fibre interventions during weight loss. These recent advances in understanding can lead
to a more complete and integrated approach to promoting optimal health through personalised
nutrition, in clinical practise settings and for individuals in their daily lives. The purpose of this
review is to summarise presentations made during the DSM Science and Technology Award
Symposium at the 13th European Nutrition Conference, which focused on personalised nutrition
and novel technologies for health in the modern world.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages24
JournalBRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 23 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • Personalised nutrition
  • automated food image recognition
  • deep learning
  • cognition
  • epigenetics
  • folate
  • pregnancy
  • genetics
  • vitamin B12
  • cardiometabolic disease
  • obesity
  • enterotype
  • Prevotella
  • Bacteroides

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