Dietary reference values for sodium

Dominique Turck, J Castenmiller, Stefaan De Henauw, Karen-Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, John Kearney, H Knutsen, A Maciuk, Inge Mangelsdorf, Harry McArdle, Carmen Pelaez, K. Pentieva, Alfonso Siani, Frank Thies, Sophia Tsabouri, Marco Vinceti, Peter Aggett, Susan Fairweather‐Tait, Ambroise Martin, Hildegard Przyrembel, Laura Ciccolallo & 4 others Agnes de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Silvia Valtuena Martinez, Laura Martino, Androniki Naska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for sodium. Evidence from balance studies on sodium and on the relationship between sodium intake and health outcomes, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related endpoints and bone health, was reviewed. The data were not sufficient to enable an average requirement (AR) or population reference intake (PRI) to be derived. However, by integrating the available evidence and associated uncertainties, the Panel considers that a sodium intake of 2.0 g/day represents a level of sodium for which there is sufficient confidence in a reduced risk of CVD in the general adult population. In addition, a sodium intake of 2.0 g/day is likely to allow most of the general adult population to maintain sodium balance. Therefore, the Panel considers that 2.0 g sodium/day is a safe and adequate intake for the general EU population of adults. The same value applies to pregnant and lactating women. Sodium intakes that are considered safe and adequate for children are extrapolated from the value for adults, adjusting for their respective energy requirement and including a growth factor, and are as follows: 1.1 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 1.3 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 1.7 g/day for children aged 7–10 years and 2.0 g/day for children aged 11–17 years, respectively. For infants aged 7–11 months, an Adequate Intake (AI) of 0.2 g/day is proposed based on upwards extrapolation of the estimated sodium intake in exclusively breast-fed infants aged 0–6 months.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages191
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume17
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sep 2019

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Dietary Reference Intakes
Reference Values
Sodium
sodium
Adequate Intakes
Population
cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
lactating women
Food
novel foods
balance studies
Health
pregnant women
allergens
endpoints
energy requirements
Allergens
growth factors
Uncertainty

Keywords

  • sodium intake, recommendations, health

Cite this

Turck, D., Castenmiller, J., De Henauw, S., Hirsch-Ernst, K-I., Kearney, J., Knutsen, H., ... Naska, A. (2019). Dietary reference values for sodium. EFSA Journal, 17(9). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5778
Turck, Dominique ; Castenmiller, J ; De Henauw, Stefaan ; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-Ildico ; Kearney, John ; Knutsen, H ; Maciuk, A ; Mangelsdorf, Inge ; McArdle, Harry ; Pelaez, Carmen ; Pentieva, K. ; Siani, Alfonso ; Thies, Frank ; Tsabouri, Sophia ; Vinceti, Marco ; Aggett, Peter ; Fairweather‐Tait, Susan ; Martin, Ambroise ; Przyrembel, Hildegard ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Agnes ; Valtuena Martinez, Silvia ; Martino, Laura ; Naska, Androniki. / Dietary reference values for sodium. In: EFSA Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 17, No. 9.
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Turck, D, Castenmiller, J, De Henauw, S, Hirsch-Ernst, K-I, Kearney, J, Knutsen, H, Maciuk, A, Mangelsdorf, I, McArdle, H, Pelaez, C, Pentieva, K, Siani, A, Thies, F, Tsabouri, S, Vinceti, M, Aggett, P, Fairweather‐Tait, S, Martin, A, Przyrembel, H, Ciccolallo, L, de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, A, Valtuena Martinez, S, Martino, L & Naska, A 2019, 'Dietary reference values for sodium', EFSA Journal, vol. 17, no. 9. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5778

Dietary reference values for sodium. / Turck, Dominique; Castenmiller, J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-Ildico; Kearney, John; Knutsen, H; Maciuk, A; Mangelsdorf, Inge; McArdle, Harry; Pelaez, Carmen; Pentieva, K.; Siani, Alfonso; Thies, Frank; Tsabouri, Sophia; Vinceti, Marco; Aggett, Peter; Fairweather‐Tait, Susan; Martin, Ambroise; Przyrembel, Hildegard; Ciccolallo, Laura; de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Agnes; Valtuena Martinez, Silvia; Martino, Laura; Naska, Androniki.

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 9, 04.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Dietary reference values for sodium

AU - Turck, Dominique

AU - Castenmiller, J

AU - De Henauw, Stefaan

AU - Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-Ildico

AU - Kearney, John

AU - Knutsen, H

AU - Maciuk, A

AU - Mangelsdorf, Inge

AU - McArdle, Harry

AU - Pelaez, Carmen

AU - Pentieva, K.

AU - Siani, Alfonso

AU - Thies, Frank

AU - Tsabouri, Sophia

AU - Vinceti, Marco

AU - Aggett, Peter

AU - Fairweather‐Tait, Susan

AU - Martin, Ambroise

AU - Przyrembel, Hildegard

AU - Ciccolallo, Laura

AU - de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Agnes

AU - Valtuena Martinez, Silvia

AU - Martino, Laura

AU - Naska, Androniki

PY - 2019/9/4

Y1 - 2019/9/4

N2 - Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for sodium. Evidence from balance studies on sodium and on the relationship between sodium intake and health outcomes, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related endpoints and bone health, was reviewed. The data were not sufficient to enable an average requirement (AR) or population reference intake (PRI) to be derived. However, by integrating the available evidence and associated uncertainties, the Panel considers that a sodium intake of 2.0 g/day represents a level of sodium for which there is sufficient confidence in a reduced risk of CVD in the general adult population. In addition, a sodium intake of 2.0 g/day is likely to allow most of the general adult population to maintain sodium balance. Therefore, the Panel considers that 2.0 g sodium/day is a safe and adequate intake for the general EU population of adults. The same value applies to pregnant and lactating women. Sodium intakes that are considered safe and adequate for children are extrapolated from the value for adults, adjusting for their respective energy requirement and including a growth factor, and are as follows: 1.1 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 1.3 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 1.7 g/day for children aged 7–10 years and 2.0 g/day for children aged 11–17 years, respectively. For infants aged 7–11 months, an Adequate Intake (AI) of 0.2 g/day is proposed based on upwards extrapolation of the estimated sodium intake in exclusively breast-fed infants aged 0–6 months.

AB - Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for sodium. Evidence from balance studies on sodium and on the relationship between sodium intake and health outcomes, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related endpoints and bone health, was reviewed. The data were not sufficient to enable an average requirement (AR) or population reference intake (PRI) to be derived. However, by integrating the available evidence and associated uncertainties, the Panel considers that a sodium intake of 2.0 g/day represents a level of sodium for which there is sufficient confidence in a reduced risk of CVD in the general adult population. In addition, a sodium intake of 2.0 g/day is likely to allow most of the general adult population to maintain sodium balance. Therefore, the Panel considers that 2.0 g sodium/day is a safe and adequate intake for the general EU population of adults. The same value applies to pregnant and lactating women. Sodium intakes that are considered safe and adequate for children are extrapolated from the value for adults, adjusting for their respective energy requirement and including a growth factor, and are as follows: 1.1 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 1.3 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 1.7 g/day for children aged 7–10 years and 2.0 g/day for children aged 11–17 years, respectively. For infants aged 7–11 months, an Adequate Intake (AI) of 0.2 g/day is proposed based on upwards extrapolation of the estimated sodium intake in exclusively breast-fed infants aged 0–6 months.

KW - sodium intake, recommendations, health

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DO - 10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5778

M3 - Article

VL - 17

JO - EFSA Journal

T2 - EFSA Journal

JF - EFSA Journal

SN - 1831-4732

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Turck D, Castenmiller J, De Henauw S, Hirsch-Ernst K-I, Kearney J, Knutsen H et al. Dietary reference values for sodium. EFSA Journal. 2019 Sep 4;17(9). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5778