Dietary reference values for chloride

Dominique Turck, J Castenmiller, Stefaan De Henauw, Karen‐Ildico Hirsch‐Ernst, John Kearney, Helle Katrine Knutsen, A Maciuk, Inge Mangelsdorf, Harry J. McArdle, C Pelaez, K. Pentieva, Alfonso Siani, Frank Thies, S Tsabouri, Marco Vinceti, Peter Aggett, Susan Fairweather‐Tait, Ambroise Martin, Hildegard Przyrembel, Agnes de Sesmaisons-Lecarre & 1 others Androniki Naska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) has derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for chloride. There are no appropriate biomarkers of chloride status, no balance studies and no adequate evidence on the relationship between chloride intake and health outcomes that can be used to set DRVs for chloride. There is a close relationship between sodium and chloride balances in the body. Sodium chloride is the main source of both electrolytes in European diets and similar urinary excretion levels of sodium and chloride (on a molar basis) are typically observed in Western populations. Hence, the Panel considered that reference values for chloride can be set at values equimolar to the reference values for sodium for all population groups, and are as follows: 1.7 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 2.0 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 2.6 g/day for children aged 7–10 years, 3.1 g/day for children aged 11–17 years and 3.1 g/day for adults including pregnant and lactating women. Consistent with the reference values for sodium, these levels of chloride intake are considered to be safe and adequate for the general EU population, under the consideration that the main dietary source of chloride intake is sodium chloride. For infants aged 7–11 months, an adequate intake of 0.3 g/day is set.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages24
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume17
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Dietary Reference Intakes
Chlorides
chlorides
Reference Values
Sodium Chloride
sodium
normal values
Food
sodium chloride
Population Groups
Allergens
Electrolytes
Population
Adequate Intakes
lactating women
Pregnant Women
novel foods
balance studies
Biomarkers
Sodium

Cite this

Turck, D., Castenmiller, J., De Henauw, S., Hirsch‐Ernst, KI., Kearney, J., Knutsen, H. K., ... Naska, A. (2019). Dietary reference values for chloride. EFSA Journal, 17(9). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5779
Turck, Dominique ; Castenmiller, J ; De Henauw, Stefaan ; Hirsch‐Ernst, Karen‐Ildico ; Kearney, John ; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Maciuk, A ; Mangelsdorf, Inge ; McArdle, Harry J. ; Pelaez, C ; Pentieva, K. ; Siani, Alfonso ; Thies, Frank ; Tsabouri, S ; Vinceti, Marco ; Aggett, Peter ; Fairweather‐Tait, Susan ; Martin, Ambroise ; Przyrembel, Hildegard ; de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Agnes ; Naska, Androniki . / Dietary reference values for chloride. In: EFSA Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 17, No. 9.
@article{948543335a7948bda2db3ccbe554b6d3,
title = "Dietary reference values for chloride",
abstract = "Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) has derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for chloride. There are no appropriate biomarkers of chloride status, no balance studies and no adequate evidence on the relationship between chloride intake and health outcomes that can be used to set DRVs for chloride. There is a close relationship between sodium and chloride balances in the body. Sodium chloride is the main source of both electrolytes in European diets and similar urinary excretion levels of sodium and chloride (on a molar basis) are typically observed in Western populations. Hence, the Panel considered that reference values for chloride can be set at values equimolar to the reference values for sodium for all population groups, and are as follows: 1.7 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 2.0 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 2.6 g/day for children aged 7–10 years, 3.1 g/day for children aged 11–17 years and 3.1 g/day for adults including pregnant and lactating women. Consistent with the reference values for sodium, these levels of chloride intake are considered to be safe and adequate for the general EU population, under the consideration that the main dietary source of chloride intake is sodium chloride. For infants aged 7–11 months, an adequate intake of 0.3 g/day is set.",
author = "Dominique Turck and J Castenmiller and {De Henauw}, Stefaan and Karen‐Ildico Hirsch‐Ernst and John Kearney and Knutsen, {Helle Katrine} and A Maciuk and Inge Mangelsdorf and McArdle, {Harry J.} and C Pelaez and K. Pentieva and Alfonso Siani and Frank Thies and S Tsabouri and Marco Vinceti and Peter Aggett and Susan Fairweather‐Tait and Ambroise Martin and Hildegard Przyrembel and {de Sesmaisons-Lecarre}, Agnes and Androniki Naska",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "4",
doi = "10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5779",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
journal = "EFSA Journal",
issn = "1831-4732",
number = "9",

}

Turck, D, Castenmiller, J, De Henauw, S, Hirsch‐Ernst, KI, Kearney, J, Knutsen, HK, Maciuk, A, Mangelsdorf, I, McArdle, HJ, Pelaez, C, Pentieva, K, Siani, A, Thies, F, Tsabouri, S, Vinceti, M, Aggett, P, Fairweather‐Tait, S, Martin, A, Przyrembel, H, de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, A & Naska, A 2019, 'Dietary reference values for chloride', EFSA Journal, vol. 17, no. 9. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5779

Dietary reference values for chloride. / Turck, Dominique; Castenmiller, J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hirsch‐Ernst, Karen‐Ildico; Kearney, John; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Maciuk, A; Mangelsdorf, Inge; McArdle, Harry J.; Pelaez, C; Pentieva, K.; Siani, Alfonso; Thies, Frank; Tsabouri, S; Vinceti, Marco; Aggett, Peter; Fairweather‐Tait, Susan ; Martin, Ambroise; Przyrembel, Hildegard; de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Agnes; Naska, Androniki .

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 9, 04.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary reference values for chloride

AU - Turck, Dominique

AU - Castenmiller, J

AU - De Henauw, Stefaan

AU - Hirsch‐Ernst, Karen‐Ildico

AU - Kearney, John

AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Maciuk, A

AU - Mangelsdorf, Inge

AU - McArdle, Harry J.

AU - Pelaez, C

AU - Pentieva, K.

AU - Siani, Alfonso

AU - Thies, Frank

AU - Tsabouri, S

AU - Vinceti, Marco

AU - Aggett, Peter

AU - Fairweather‐Tait, Susan

AU - Martin, Ambroise

AU - Przyrembel, Hildegard

AU - de Sesmaisons-Lecarre, Agnes

AU - Naska, Androniki

PY - 2019/9/4

Y1 - 2019/9/4

N2 - Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) has derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for chloride. There are no appropriate biomarkers of chloride status, no balance studies and no adequate evidence on the relationship between chloride intake and health outcomes that can be used to set DRVs for chloride. There is a close relationship between sodium and chloride balances in the body. Sodium chloride is the main source of both electrolytes in European diets and similar urinary excretion levels of sodium and chloride (on a molar basis) are typically observed in Western populations. Hence, the Panel considered that reference values for chloride can be set at values equimolar to the reference values for sodium for all population groups, and are as follows: 1.7 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 2.0 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 2.6 g/day for children aged 7–10 years, 3.1 g/day for children aged 11–17 years and 3.1 g/day for adults including pregnant and lactating women. Consistent with the reference values for sodium, these levels of chloride intake are considered to be safe and adequate for the general EU population, under the consideration that the main dietary source of chloride intake is sodium chloride. For infants aged 7–11 months, an adequate intake of 0.3 g/day is set.

AB - Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) has derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for chloride. There are no appropriate biomarkers of chloride status, no balance studies and no adequate evidence on the relationship between chloride intake and health outcomes that can be used to set DRVs for chloride. There is a close relationship between sodium and chloride balances in the body. Sodium chloride is the main source of both electrolytes in European diets and similar urinary excretion levels of sodium and chloride (on a molar basis) are typically observed in Western populations. Hence, the Panel considered that reference values for chloride can be set at values equimolar to the reference values for sodium for all population groups, and are as follows: 1.7 g/day for children aged 1–3 years, 2.0 g/day for children aged 4–6 years, 2.6 g/day for children aged 7–10 years, 3.1 g/day for children aged 11–17 years and 3.1 g/day for adults including pregnant and lactating women. Consistent with the reference values for sodium, these levels of chloride intake are considered to be safe and adequate for the general EU population, under the consideration that the main dietary source of chloride intake is sodium chloride. For infants aged 7–11 months, an adequate intake of 0.3 g/day is set.

U2 - 10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5779

DO - 10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5779

M3 - Article

VL - 17

JO - EFSA Journal

T2 - EFSA Journal

JF - EFSA Journal

SN - 1831-4732

IS - 9

ER -

Turck D, Castenmiller J, De Henauw S, Hirsch‐Ernst KI, Kearney J, Knutsen HK et al. Dietary reference values for chloride. EFSA Journal. 2019 Sep 4;17(9). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5779