DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Drug-induced endocrinopathies and diabetes: a combo-endocrinology overview.

E Diamanti-Kandarakis, L Duntas, GA Kanakis, E Kandaraki, N Karavitaki, E Kassi, S Livadas, G Mastorakos, I Migdalis, AD Miras, S Nader, O Papalou, M Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the currently overwhelming era of polypharmacy, the balance of the dynamic and delicate endocrine system can
easily be disturbed by interfering pharmaceutical agents like medications. Drugs can cause endocrine abnormalities
via different mechanisms, including direct alteration of hormone production, changes in the regulation of the feedback
axis, on hormonal transport, binding and signaling, as well as similar changes to counter-regulatory hormone systems.
Furthermore, drugs can interfere with the hormonal assays, leading to erroneous laboratory results that disorientate
clinicians from the right diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to cover a contemporary topic, the drug-induced
endocrinopathies, which was presented in the monothematic annual Combo Endo Course 2018. This challenging part of
endocrinology is constantly expanding particularly during the last decade, with the new oncological therapeutic agents,
targeting novel molecular pathways in the process of malignancies. In this new context of drug-induced endocrine
disease, clinicians should be aware that drugs can cause endocrine abnormalities via different mechanisms and mimic
a variety of clinical scenarios. Therefore, it is extremely important for clinicians not only to promptly recognize druginduced hormonal and metabolic abnormalities, but also to address the therapeutic issues for timely intervention.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R73-R105
Number of pages33
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Aug 2019


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