Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview on Mechanisms, Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy

Prawej Ansari, N Tabasumma, N Snigdha, N Siam, R Panduru, S Azam, JMA Hannan, Yasser Abdel-Wahab

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
369 Downloads (Pure)


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequently occurring metabolic disorders (DMs), impairing healthy life around the globe, with mild-to-severe secondary complications. DM is associated with secondary complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), which damages the retina and can lead to vision loss. Diabetic patients often suffer from extreme retinal capillary aneurysms, hemorrhage, and edema, which is likely to lead to non-proliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR or PDR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Several epidemiological studies have illustrated that the occurrence of DR can vary by age of diabetes onset, diabetes type, and ethnicity. Although DR is very well-known, the complexity of its etiology and diagnosis makes therapeutic intervention difficult and challenging. We have reviewed different pathological aspects of diabetic retinopathy and its underlying mechanism of occurrence. In this review, we aim to provide an in-depth understanding and illustration of the progression of diabetic retinopathy, its pathophysiology, epidemiology, and prospective therapeutic targets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-175
Number of pages17
Issue number1
Early online date15 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 Feb 2022


  • Type 2 diabetes
  • hyperglycaemia
  • insulin
  • retinopathy
  • vision loss
  • hyperglycemia
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus


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