Development of a new in situ test method to measure the air permeability of high performance concretes

K Yang, PAM Basheer, Y Bai, Bryan Magee, AE Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although several in situ techniques, including the Autoclam Permeability System, are available to examine normal concretes (NCs) for this purpose, none are sufficiently sensitive to quantify and distinguish relative high performance concrete (HPC) performance. Therefore, to assess the HPC performance characteristics using the Autoclam air permeability test methodology, two key modifications were investigated and anew test protocol developed. The first modification considered a reduced volume of compressed air applied to the test area (named LV test), and the second an increased test area (named A-75). The reliability of the proposed modifications was investigated by comparing against a laboratory-based gas permeability test method (RILEM air permeability test). Surface resistivity and relative humidity were assessed to evaluate the influence of moisture conditions on in situ air permeability test results. A strong correlation between LV test and RILEM air permeability test results was found when the free moisturenear concrete surface regions (up to 20 mm) was removed. It was concluded that the LV test exhibits strong potential to become an established method for assessing in situ HPC permeability.
LanguageEnglish
Pages30-40
JournalNDT and E International
Volume64
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014

Fingerprint

Air permeability
High performance concrete
Concretes
Gas permeability
Compressed air
Atmospheric humidity
Moisture

Keywords

  • In situ air permeability test
  • High performance concrete
  • Relative humidity
  • Surface resistivity
  • RILEM gas permeability test
  • Autoclam air permeability test

Cite this

@article{0003759e101247df8a8b649b5fea7c12,
title = "Development of a new in situ test method to measure the air permeability of high performance concretes",
abstract = "Although several in situ techniques, including the Autoclam Permeability System, are available to examine normal concretes (NCs) for this purpose, none are sufficiently sensitive to quantify and distinguish relative high performance concrete (HPC) performance. Therefore, to assess the HPC performance characteristics using the Autoclam air permeability test methodology, two key modifications were investigated and anew test protocol developed. The first modification considered a reduced volume of compressed air applied to the test area (named LV test), and the second an increased test area (named A-75). The reliability of the proposed modifications was investigated by comparing against a laboratory-based gas permeability test method (RILEM air permeability test). Surface resistivity and relative humidity were assessed to evaluate the influence of moisture conditions on in situ air permeability test results. A strong correlation between LV test and RILEM air permeability test results was found when the free moisturenear concrete surface regions (up to 20 mm) was removed. It was concluded that the LV test exhibits strong potential to become an established method for assessing in situ HPC permeability.",
keywords = "In situ air permeability test, High performance concrete, Relative humidity, Surface resistivity, RILEM gas permeability test, Autoclam air permeability test",
author = "K Yang and PAM Basheer and Y Bai and Bryan Magee and AE Long",
note = "Reference text: [1] Neville AM, Aitcin PC. High performance concrete – an overview. Mater Struct 1998;31:111–7. [2] Malier Y. High performance concrete: from material to structure. Spon; 1992. [3] Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM. Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill; 2006. [4] Long AE, Henderson GD, Montgomery FR. Why assess the properties of nearsurface concrete. Constr Build Mater 2001;15:65–79. [5] du Preez AA, Alexader MG. A site study of durability index for concrete in marine conditions. Mater Struct 2004;37:146–54. [6] Iqbal KM. Mix proportions for HPC incorporating multi-cementitious composites using artificial neural networks. Constr Build Mater 2012;28:14–20. [7] Hamami AA, Turcry P, Al-Moktar A. Influence of mix proportions on microstructure and gas permeability of cement pastes and mortars. Cement Concr Res 2012;42:490–8. [8] Neville AM. Properties of concrete. 4th edJohn Wiley&Sons; 1996. [9] Millard SG, Harrison JA, Gowers KR. Practical measurement of concrete resistivity. Br J Non-destr Test 1991;33:50–63. [10] Basheer PAM, Montgomery FR, Long AE. 'CLAM' tests for measuring in situ permeation properties of concrete. Nondestr Test Eval 1995;12:53–73. [11] Figg JW. Methods of measuring the air and water permeability of concrete. Mag Concr Res 1973;25:213–9. [12] Shaw MR, Millard SG, Molyneaux TCK, Taylor MJ, Bungey JH. Location of steel reinforcement in concrete using ground penetrating radar and neural networks. NDT&E Int 2005;38:203–12. [13] Kucharczykova B, Mlsak P, Vymazal T. Determination and evaluation of the air permeability coefficient using Torrent permeability tester. Russ J Non-destr Test 2010;46:226–33. [14] Torrent RT. A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of permeability to air of the concrete cover on site. Mater Struct 1992;25:358–65. [15] Basheer PAM, Andrews RJ, Robinson DJ, Long AE. ‘PERMIT' ion migration test for measuring the chloride ion transport of concrete on site. NDT&E Int 2005;38:219–29. [16] Githachuri K, Alexander MG, Moyo P. Durability performance of a range of marine concretes and the applicability of the South African service life prediction model. Mater Struct 2012;45:185–98. [17] Denarie E, Jacobs F, Leemann A, Teruzzi T, Torrent, RT. Specification and site control of the permeability of the cover concrete: the Swiss approach. In: C Leung and KT Wan (editors), International RILEM conference on advances in construction materials through science and engineering. RILEM 2011:478–85. [18] Elahi A, Basheer PAM, Nanukuttan SV, QUZ Khan. Mechanical and durability properties of high performance concretes containing supplementary cementitious materials. Constr Build Mater 2010;24:292–9. [19] Romer M. Effect of moisture and concrete composition on the Torrent permeability measurement. Mater Struct 2005;38:541–7. [20] Yang K, Basheer PAM, Magee B, Bai Y. Investigation of moisture condition and Autoclam sensitivity on air permeability measurements for both normal concrete and high performance concrete. Constr Build Mater 2013;48:306–14. [21] K Yang K, PAM Basheer, Y Bai, Autoclam – an effective field method to measure permeability of high performance. concretes, in: Second International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures (ICDCS-2010). Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2010. 8 pages. [22] ISO-5725. Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 4: Basic methods for the determination of the trueness of a standard measurement method. ISO; 1994. 32 pages. [23] Russell D, Basheer PAM, Rankin GIB, Long AE. Effect of relative humidity and air permeability on prediction of the rate of carbonation of concrete. Struct Build, Inst Civil Eng 2001;146(3):319–26. [24] BS-EN:197-1. Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. BSI; 2000. 52 pages. [25] BS-EN:450. Fly ash for concrete-Part 1: Definition, specifications and conformity criteria. BSI; 2005. 36 pages. [26] BS-EN:13263-1. Silica fume for concrete. Definitions, requirements and conformity criteria. BSI; 2009. 28 pages. [27] BS-EN:15167. Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout-Part-1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria. BSI; 2006. 28 pages. [28] BS1881-125, Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory, BSI, 1986, 10 pages. [29] BS-EN:12350-2. Testing fresh concrete-2: Slump test. BSI; 2000. 8 pages. [30] BS-EN:12350-7. Testing fresh concrete-7: Air content. Pressure methods. BSI; 2000. 20 pages. [31] BS-EN:12390-3. Testing hardened concrete-3: Compressive strength of test specimens. BSI; 2009. 22 pages. [32] Basheer PAM, Nolan EA, McCarter WJ, Long AE. Effectiveness of in-situ moisture preconditioning methods for concrete. J Mater Civil Eng, ASCE 2000;12: 131–8. [33] RILEM:TC116-PCD. Tests for gas permeability of concrete. B: measurement of the gas permeability of concrete by the RILEM-CEMBUREAU method. Mater Struct. 1999; 32:176–8. [34] McCarter W, Ezirim H, Emerson M. Properties of concrete in the cover zone water penetration, sorptivity and ionic ingress. Mag Concr Res 1996;48: 149–56. [35] Parrott LJ. Moisture conditioning and transport properties of concrete test specimens. Mater Struct 1994;27:460–8. [36] Baroghel-bouny V. Water vapour sorption experiments on hardened cementitious materials, Part I: essential tool for analysis of hygral behaviour and its relation to pore structure. Cement Concr Res 2007;37:414–37. [37] Burlion N. Induced anisotropic permeability due to drying of concrete. Cement Concr Res 2003;33:679–87. [38] Graybill FA, Iyer HK. Regression analysis: concepts and applications. Duxbury Press; 1994. [39] Montgomery DC. Design and analysis of experiments. 4th edJohn Wiley & Sons; 1996. [40] Nilsson LO. Long-term moisture transport in high performance concrete. Mater Struct 2002;35:641–9.",
year = "2014",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.02.005",
language = "English",
volume = "64",
pages = "30--40",
journal = "NDT and E International",
issn = "0963-8695",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Development of a new in situ test method to measure the air permeability of high performance concretes. / Yang, K; Basheer, PAM; Bai, Y; Magee, Bryan; Long, AE.

In: NDT and E International, Vol. 64, 06.2014, p. 30-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of a new in situ test method to measure the air permeability of high performance concretes

AU - Yang, K

AU - Basheer, PAM

AU - Bai, Y

AU - Magee, Bryan

AU - Long, AE

N1 - Reference text: [1] Neville AM, Aitcin PC. High performance concrete – an overview. Mater Struct 1998;31:111–7. [2] Malier Y. High performance concrete: from material to structure. Spon; 1992. [3] Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM. Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill; 2006. [4] Long AE, Henderson GD, Montgomery FR. Why assess the properties of nearsurface concrete. Constr Build Mater 2001;15:65–79. [5] du Preez AA, Alexader MG. A site study of durability index for concrete in marine conditions. Mater Struct 2004;37:146–54. [6] Iqbal KM. Mix proportions for HPC incorporating multi-cementitious composites using artificial neural networks. Constr Build Mater 2012;28:14–20. [7] Hamami AA, Turcry P, Al-Moktar A. Influence of mix proportions on microstructure and gas permeability of cement pastes and mortars. Cement Concr Res 2012;42:490–8. [8] Neville AM. Properties of concrete. 4th edJohn Wiley&Sons; 1996. [9] Millard SG, Harrison JA, Gowers KR. Practical measurement of concrete resistivity. Br J Non-destr Test 1991;33:50–63. [10] Basheer PAM, Montgomery FR, Long AE. 'CLAM' tests for measuring in situ permeation properties of concrete. Nondestr Test Eval 1995;12:53–73. [11] Figg JW. Methods of measuring the air and water permeability of concrete. Mag Concr Res 1973;25:213–9. [12] Shaw MR, Millard SG, Molyneaux TCK, Taylor MJ, Bungey JH. Location of steel reinforcement in concrete using ground penetrating radar and neural networks. NDT&E Int 2005;38:203–12. [13] Kucharczykova B, Mlsak P, Vymazal T. Determination and evaluation of the air permeability coefficient using Torrent permeability tester. Russ J Non-destr Test 2010;46:226–33. [14] Torrent RT. A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of permeability to air of the concrete cover on site. Mater Struct 1992;25:358–65. [15] Basheer PAM, Andrews RJ, Robinson DJ, Long AE. ‘PERMIT' ion migration test for measuring the chloride ion transport of concrete on site. NDT&E Int 2005;38:219–29. [16] Githachuri K, Alexander MG, Moyo P. Durability performance of a range of marine concretes and the applicability of the South African service life prediction model. Mater Struct 2012;45:185–98. [17] Denarie E, Jacobs F, Leemann A, Teruzzi T, Torrent, RT. Specification and site control of the permeability of the cover concrete: the Swiss approach. In: C Leung and KT Wan (editors), International RILEM conference on advances in construction materials through science and engineering. RILEM 2011:478–85. [18] Elahi A, Basheer PAM, Nanukuttan SV, QUZ Khan. Mechanical and durability properties of high performance concretes containing supplementary cementitious materials. Constr Build Mater 2010;24:292–9. [19] Romer M. Effect of moisture and concrete composition on the Torrent permeability measurement. Mater Struct 2005;38:541–7. [20] Yang K, Basheer PAM, Magee B, Bai Y. Investigation of moisture condition and Autoclam sensitivity on air permeability measurements for both normal concrete and high performance concrete. Constr Build Mater 2013;48:306–14. [21] K Yang K, PAM Basheer, Y Bai, Autoclam – an effective field method to measure permeability of high performance. concretes, in: Second International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures (ICDCS-2010). Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2010. 8 pages. [22] ISO-5725. Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 4: Basic methods for the determination of the trueness of a standard measurement method. ISO; 1994. 32 pages. [23] Russell D, Basheer PAM, Rankin GIB, Long AE. Effect of relative humidity and air permeability on prediction of the rate of carbonation of concrete. Struct Build, Inst Civil Eng 2001;146(3):319–26. [24] BS-EN:197-1. Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. BSI; 2000. 52 pages. [25] BS-EN:450. Fly ash for concrete-Part 1: Definition, specifications and conformity criteria. BSI; 2005. 36 pages. [26] BS-EN:13263-1. Silica fume for concrete. Definitions, requirements and conformity criteria. BSI; 2009. 28 pages. [27] BS-EN:15167. Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout-Part-1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria. BSI; 2006. 28 pages. [28] BS1881-125, Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory, BSI, 1986, 10 pages. [29] BS-EN:12350-2. Testing fresh concrete-2: Slump test. BSI; 2000. 8 pages. [30] BS-EN:12350-7. Testing fresh concrete-7: Air content. Pressure methods. BSI; 2000. 20 pages. [31] BS-EN:12390-3. Testing hardened concrete-3: Compressive strength of test specimens. BSI; 2009. 22 pages. [32] Basheer PAM, Nolan EA, McCarter WJ, Long AE. Effectiveness of in-situ moisture preconditioning methods for concrete. J Mater Civil Eng, ASCE 2000;12: 131–8. [33] RILEM:TC116-PCD. Tests for gas permeability of concrete. B: measurement of the gas permeability of concrete by the RILEM-CEMBUREAU method. Mater Struct. 1999; 32:176–8. [34] McCarter W, Ezirim H, Emerson M. Properties of concrete in the cover zone water penetration, sorptivity and ionic ingress. Mag Concr Res 1996;48: 149–56. [35] Parrott LJ. Moisture conditioning and transport properties of concrete test specimens. Mater Struct 1994;27:460–8. [36] Baroghel-bouny V. Water vapour sorption experiments on hardened cementitious materials, Part I: essential tool for analysis of hygral behaviour and its relation to pore structure. Cement Concr Res 2007;37:414–37. [37] Burlion N. Induced anisotropic permeability due to drying of concrete. Cement Concr Res 2003;33:679–87. [38] Graybill FA, Iyer HK. Regression analysis: concepts and applications. Duxbury Press; 1994. [39] Montgomery DC. Design and analysis of experiments. 4th edJohn Wiley & Sons; 1996. [40] Nilsson LO. Long-term moisture transport in high performance concrete. Mater Struct 2002;35:641–9.

PY - 2014/6

Y1 - 2014/6

N2 - Although several in situ techniques, including the Autoclam Permeability System, are available to examine normal concretes (NCs) for this purpose, none are sufficiently sensitive to quantify and distinguish relative high performance concrete (HPC) performance. Therefore, to assess the HPC performance characteristics using the Autoclam air permeability test methodology, two key modifications were investigated and anew test protocol developed. The first modification considered a reduced volume of compressed air applied to the test area (named LV test), and the second an increased test area (named A-75). The reliability of the proposed modifications was investigated by comparing against a laboratory-based gas permeability test method (RILEM air permeability test). Surface resistivity and relative humidity were assessed to evaluate the influence of moisture conditions on in situ air permeability test results. A strong correlation between LV test and RILEM air permeability test results was found when the free moisturenear concrete surface regions (up to 20 mm) was removed. It was concluded that the LV test exhibits strong potential to become an established method for assessing in situ HPC permeability.

AB - Although several in situ techniques, including the Autoclam Permeability System, are available to examine normal concretes (NCs) for this purpose, none are sufficiently sensitive to quantify and distinguish relative high performance concrete (HPC) performance. Therefore, to assess the HPC performance characteristics using the Autoclam air permeability test methodology, two key modifications were investigated and anew test protocol developed. The first modification considered a reduced volume of compressed air applied to the test area (named LV test), and the second an increased test area (named A-75). The reliability of the proposed modifications was investigated by comparing against a laboratory-based gas permeability test method (RILEM air permeability test). Surface resistivity and relative humidity were assessed to evaluate the influence of moisture conditions on in situ air permeability test results. A strong correlation between LV test and RILEM air permeability test results was found when the free moisturenear concrete surface regions (up to 20 mm) was removed. It was concluded that the LV test exhibits strong potential to become an established method for assessing in situ HPC permeability.

KW - In situ air permeability test

KW - High performance concrete

KW - Relative humidity

KW - Surface resistivity

KW - RILEM gas permeability test

KW - Autoclam air permeability test

U2 - 10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.02.005

DO - 10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.02.005

M3 - Article

VL - 64

SP - 30

EP - 40

JO - NDT and E International

T2 - NDT and E International

JF - NDT and E International

SN - 0963-8695

ER -