Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor is a popular platform for real-time monitoring and sensitive detection for a myriad of targets. However, only a few studies have reported the use of bacteriophages as specific binders for SPR-based detection. This study aimed to demonstrate how filamentous M13 bacteriophages expressing 12-mer peptides can be employed in an SPR-based assay, using a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage as a model binder to detect the foodborne bacterium Salmonella. Several important factors (immobilization buffers and methods, and interaction buffers) for a successful bacteriophage-based SPR assay were optimized. As a result, a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage-based SPR assay was achieved, with very low cross reactivity with other non-target foodborne pathogens and detection limits of 8.0 × 107 and 1.3 × 107 CFU/mL for one-time and five-time immobilized sensors, respectively. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of using M13 bacteriophages expressing target-specific peptides as a binder in a rapid and label-free SPR assay for pathogen detection.
- Peptide binders