Development and validation of an inventory to assess conflict in sport teams: the Group Conflict Questionnaire

Kyle Paradis, Albert Carron, Luc Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
832 Downloads (Pure)


The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a conceptually and psychometrically sound conflict questionnaire for sport. The development process involved 3 phases: (a) a qualitative phase, (b) a content and factorial validity phase and (c) a construct validity phase. A total of 50 items were generated and sent to 6 experts to determine content validity. Through this process, 25 items were retained and administered to a sample of athletes (n = 437) to determine factorial validity. Based on these results, a second sample (n = 305) was administered the 14-item version of the Group Conflict Questionnaire along with the Group Environment Questionnaire, the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Passion Scale to test convergent, discriminant and known-group difference validity. Cross-validation from both samples via confirmatory factor analysis yielded moderate-to-acceptable model fit, thus supporting factorial validity for the 14-item version. Additionally, initial support for convergent validity and known-group difference validity and partial support for discriminant validity were found. A sport-specific conflict questionnaire is now available for researchers to utilise. Results and research implications are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1966-1978
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number20
Early online date30 Oct 2014
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 14 Dec 2014


  • validity
  • group dynamics
  • psychometrics
  • measurement
  • intra-group conflict


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