Development and psychometric testing of the physical examination attitudes and Practices Scale

Besher Gharaibeh, Ahmed Mohammad Al-Smadi, Ala Ashour, Paul F Slater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
152 Downloads (Pure)


Abstract Aim: To develop and test a scale that assesses the attitudes and practices of registered nurses toward physical examination in of the clinical settings. Methods: A cross sectional methodological design with a convenience sample of 277 registered nurses was used. A likert-type scale was constructed using 55 Likert-type items that were extracted from relevant literature. Exploratory Factor Analyses were conducted using Varimax rotation. Factor loading, Eigenvalues and scree plots were used to determine the best fit model. Results: The final version of the scale consisted of four factors. The determinant score was (0.001) and the total variance explained was 56.26%. All of those 4 factors had Eigenvalue >1. The final version of the scale (the 20- item scale) was tested for reliability and was internally consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = .833). The scale was supported for its validity. Conclusion: The final version of the scale can be used to determine nurses’ perspective and use of physical examination, and assist in bridging the gap between what is taught and what is practices
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-120
Number of pages10
JournalNursing Forum
Issue number1
Early online date31 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 10 Feb 2019


  • Factor analysis,
  • Nursing Research
  • physical examination
  • Attitudes


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