Development and evaluation of the effect of ethanol and surfactant in vesicular carriers on Lamivudine permeation through the skin

Kalvatala Sudhakar, Vijay Mishra, Sanjay Jain, R. Narayana Charyulu, Neelesh Malviya, Murtaza M. Tambuwala

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20 Citations (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


The skin embodies a relatively large and readily accessible surface area to absorb a drug through a non-invasive procedure. The vesicular carrier systems such as liposomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes have been explored as non-invasive systems for transdermal delivery of drugs. In the present study, different vesicular carriers were prepared by the thin-film hydration method with modification, and various parameters like size, elasticity, and release profiles were evaluated. Ethosomes and transethosomes have shown the smaller size of 362.21 ± 55.76 and 314.34 ± 41.21 nm, with deformity of 19.34% and 25.04%, respectively, compared with liposomes. The FTIR study of the skin before and after the application of vesicular formulation was performed. The ethosomes and transethosomes changed the orthorhombic phase to the liquid crystalline phase to move the vesicular carrier with the drug to cross the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin. The thermotropic behaviour of drug and vesicular carrier ingredients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fluorescence images of vesicular-skin permeation have revealed that ethosome and transethosome formulation have shown deeper penetration across the SC and epidermis. The in vitro drug release from the ethosomes and transethosomes has shown 93.34 ± 1.23% and 95.45 ± 2.67% of drug release using Franz diffusion cell and porcine skin as a membrane. The nanostructured flexible vesicular carrier containing ethanol alone and a combination of ethanol and edge activator is a perfect carrier for drug penetration to the deeper skin layer and maintaining the sustained release of drug for a prolonged time. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.]
Original languageEnglish
Article number121226
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Early online date25 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.


  • formulation
  • Pharmaceutical formulations
  • nanotechnology
  • hydrogel
  • drug delivery system
  • Transethosomes
  • Skin permeation
  • Drug delivery
  • Liposomes
  • Ethosomes
  • Surface-Active Agents
  • Ethanol
  • Lamivudine
  • Skin Absorption
  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Drug Carriers


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