Developing quality in female high-technology entrepreneurs' networks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose – Despite recognition of the value of networking, there has been little research into the networks of female entrepreneurial practitioners, particularly in the science, engineering and technology (SET) sectors, viewed traditionally as male-dominated. This paper aims to provide greater insights into the dynamics and quality of female entrepreneurial networks. Design/methodology/approach – Insights were derived through a qualitative, in-depth, interview-based study of 18 female entrepreneurs operating SET-based ventures in Northern Ireland. The use of Nvivo as the data analysis tool imposed a discipline and structure which facilitated the extraction of core insights. Findings – Aspects investigated include network type and composition; nature and frequency of engagement; and changes in network composition and networking activities through the business lifecycle. The results focus on implications of the findings for issues of quality in networks and their impact on the value of female networks. Practical implications – An understanding of these issues offers opportunities to shape government interventions to assist female entrepreneurs embarking on a venturing pathway in SET-based ventures, or those already operating in business, to be more effective in building, utilising and enhancing the quality of their networking activities. Originality/value – In exploring networking and issues of quality for female entrepreneurs operating in SET-based sectors, traditionally viewed as male-dominated, the paper considers an under-researched area of the female entrepreneurship literature.
LanguageEnglish
Pages588-606
JournalInternational Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

High technology
Entrepreneurs
Networking
Female entrepreneurs
Venture
Entrepreneurial networks
Female entrepreneurship
Northern Ireland
Government intervention
Design methodology
Pathway
Life cycle
In-depth interviews

Cite this

@article{08eb281c5f2f40469290165f67c0b7fe,
title = "Developing quality in female high-technology entrepreneurs' networks",
abstract = "Purpose – Despite recognition of the value of networking, there has been little research into the networks of female entrepreneurial practitioners, particularly in the science, engineering and technology (SET) sectors, viewed traditionally as male-dominated. This paper aims to provide greater insights into the dynamics and quality of female entrepreneurial networks. Design/methodology/approach – Insights were derived through a qualitative, in-depth, interview-based study of 18 female entrepreneurs operating SET-based ventures in Northern Ireland. The use of Nvivo as the data analysis tool imposed a discipline and structure which facilitated the extraction of core insights. Findings – Aspects investigated include network type and composition; nature and frequency of engagement; and changes in network composition and networking activities through the business lifecycle. The results focus on implications of the findings for issues of quality in networks and their impact on the value of female networks. Practical implications – An understanding of these issues offers opportunities to shape government interventions to assist female entrepreneurs embarking on a venturing pathway in SET-based ventures, or those already operating in business, to be more effective in building, utilising and enhancing the quality of their networking activities. Originality/value – In exploring networking and issues of quality for female entrepreneurs operating in SET-based sectors, traditionally viewed as male-dominated, the paper considers an under-researched area of the female entrepreneurship literature.",
author = "Alison Hampton and Pauric McGowan and Sarah cooper",
note = "Reference text: Aldrich, H.E. and Zimmer, Z. (1986), “Entrepreneurship through social networks”, in Sexton, D. and Smilor, R.W. (Eds), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp. 3-23. Aldrich, H.E., Elam, A.B. and Reese, P.R. (1997), “Strong ties weak ties and strangers: do women owners differ from men in their use of networking to obtain assistance?”, in Birley, S. and MacMillan, I.C. (Eds), Entrepreneurship in a Global Context, Routledge, London, pp. 1-25. Anderson, A.R., Drakopoulou-Dodd, S. and Jack, S. (2010), “Network practices and entrepreneurial growth”, Scandinavian Journal of Management, Vol. 26, pp. 121-33. Anderson, A., Park, J. and Jack, S. (2007), “Entrepreneurial social capital: conceptualizing the social capital in new high-tech firms”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 245-72. Birley, S., Cromie, S. and Myers, A. (1991), “Entrepreneurial networks: their emergence in Ireland and overseas”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 56-74. Developing quality in networks 601 Blois, K.J. (1996), “Relationship marketing in organizational markets: when is it appropriate?”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 367-82. Brindley, C. (2005), “Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential: women and risk”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior, Vol. 2, pp. 144-61. Bru¨ derl, J. and Preisendo¨rfer, P. (1998), “Network support and the success of newly founded businesses”, Small Business Economics, Vol. 10, pp. 213-25. Brush, C.G. (1997), “Women-owned businesses: obstacles and opportunities”, Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 1-24. Brush, C.G., de Bruin, A. and Welter, F. (2009), “A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship”, International Journal of Gender Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 8-24. Butler, J. (Ed.) (2003), New Perspectives on Women Entrepreneurs, Information Age, Greenwich, CT. Butler, J.E. and Hansen, G.S. (1991), “Network evolution, entrepreneurial success and regional development”, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 3, pp. 1-16. Burt, R. (1992), “The social structure of competition”, in Nohria, N. and Eccles, R.G. (Eds), Networks and Organisations: Structure Form and Action, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, pp. 57-91. Cantzler, I. and Leijon, S. (2007), “Team-oriented women entrepreneurs: a way to modern management”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 732-46. Carson, D., Gilmore, A., Perry, C. and Gronhaug, K. (2001), Qualitative Marketing Research, Sage, London. Carson, D., Gilmore, A., Grant, K., O’Donnell, A. and Cummins, D. (2000), “A qualitative study of networking in SMEs: a marketing perspective”, in Hills, G. and Omura, G. (Eds), Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL. Carter, S. and Shaw, E. (2006), Women’s Business Ownership: Recent Research and Policy Developments, Small Business Service, UK. Carter, S., Anderson, S. and Shaw, E. (2001), Women’s Business Ownership: A Review of the Academic, Popular and Internet Literature, University of Strathclyde/Small Business Service, Glasgow. Catterall, M. and MacLaran, P. (1996), “Using computer programs to code qualitative data”, Marketing Intelligence Planning, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 29-33. Collinson, S. and Gregson, G. (2003), “Knowledge networks for new technology-based firms: an international comparison of local entrepreneurship promotion”, R&D Management, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 189-208. Cooper, S.Y. (2000), “Location and the new technology-based firm: implications for economic development”, in Oakey, R.P. and During, W. (Eds), New Technology-based Firms at the Turn of the Century, Pergamon, London, pp. 160-76. Denscombe, M. (2003), The Good Research Guide: For Small Scale Social Research Projects, 2nd ed., Open University Press/McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead/New York, NY. Donelan, H., Herman, C., Kear, K. and Kirkup, G. (2009), “Patterns of online networking for women’s career development”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 92-111. Dubini, P. and Aldrich, H. (1991), “Personal and extended networks are central to the entrepreneurial process”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 6, pp. 305-13. IJEBR 17,6 602 Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, R. (1991), Management Research: An Introduction, Sage, London. ECDGEI (2008), Evaluation on Policy: Promotion of Women Innovators and Entrepreneurship, DG Enterprise and Industry, European Commission, available at: www.ec.europa.eu/ enterprise/dgs/eval.htm (accessed 1 April 2011). Fagenson, E.A. (1993), “Personal value systems of men and women entrepreneurs versus managers”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 8 No. 5, pp. 409-30. Farr-Wharton, R. and Brunetto, Y. (2007), “Women entrepreneurs, opportunity recognition and government-sponsored business networks: a social capital perspective”, Women in Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 187-207. Faulkner, W. (2006), Genders in/of Engineering: A Research Report, March, ESRC, Swindon, pp. 1-16. Foss, L. (2010), “Research on entrepreneur networks: the case for a constructionist feminist theory perspective”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 83-102. Gamba, M. and Kleiner, B. (2001), “The old boy’s network today”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 21 Nos 8-9, pp. 101-7. Granovetter, M.S. (1982), “The strength of weak ties: a network theory revisited”, in Marsden, P.V. and Lin, N. (Eds), Social Structure and Network Analysis, Sage Publications, Beverley Hills, CA, pp. 105-30. Greve, A. and Salaff, J.W. (2003), “Social networks and entrepreneurship”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 1-22. Guba, E.G. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1994), “Competing paradigms in qualitative research”, in Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds), The Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, London. Hampton, A., Cooper, S. and McGowan, P. (2009), “Female entrepreneurial networks and networking activity in technology based ventures”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 193-214. Harding, R., Cowling, M. and Ream, M. (2004), Female Entrepreneurship: Achieving the Vision, British Chambers of Commerce, London. Harrison, R., Cooper, S. and Mason, C. (2004), “Entrepreneurial activity and the dynamics of cluster development: the case of Ottawa”, Urban Studies, Vol. 5 No. 6, pp. 1045-70. Hart, M. (2007), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Northern Ireland, Invest NI and London Business School, Belfast and London. Hite, J.M. (2005), “Evolutionary process and paths of relationally embedded network ties in emerging entrepreneurial firms”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 29, pp. 113-44. Hite, J. and Hesterly, W. (2001), “The evolution of firm networks: from emergence to early growth of the firm”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 275-86. Hoang, H. and Antoncic, B. (2003), “Network-based research in entrepreneurship – a critical review”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, pp. 165-87. Ibarra, H. (1993), “Personal networks of women and minorities in management: a conceptual framework”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 56-88. Jack, S., Drakopoulou-Dodd, S. and Anderson, A.R. (2008), “Change and the development of entrepreneurial networks over time: a processual perspective”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 20, pp. 125-59. Developing quality in networks 603 Jarillo, C.J. (1989), “Entrepreneurship and growth: the strategic use of external sources”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 4, pp. 133-47. Jenssen, J.I. and Greve, A. (2002), “Does the degree of redundancy in social networks influence the success of business start-up?”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 8 No. 5, pp. 254-67. Johannisson, B. (1986), “Network strategies: management technology for entrepreneurship and change”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 19-36. Johannisson, B. (2000), “Networking and entrepreneurial growth”, in Sexton, D.L. and Landstrom, H. (Eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp. 368-86. Kalantaridis, C. (1996), “Local production networks in the global marketplace: entrepreneurial strategies in the garment industry of Macedonia, Greece”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 12-28. Katz, J.A. and Williams, P.M. (1997), “Gender, self-employment and weak-tie networking through formal organisations”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 9, pp. 183-97. Klyver, K. and Terjesen, S. (2007), “Entrepreneurial network composition – An analysis across venture development stage and gender”, Women in Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 8, pp. 682-8. Knouse, S.B. and Webb, S.C. (2001), “Virtual networking for women and minorities”, Career Development International, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 226-9. Krackhardt, D. (1992), “The strength of strong ties: the importance of philos in organizations”, in Nohria, N. and Eccles, R. (Eds), Networks and Organisations, Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge MA, pp. 216-39. Levie, J. and Hart, M. (2009), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: United Kingdom 2009 Monitoring Report, Aston Business School, Birmingham, and The Hunter Centre for Entrepreneurship at University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Linehan, M. (2001), “Networking for female managers: career development”, The Journal of Management Development, Vol. 20 No. 10, pp. 823-9. Linehan, M. and Scullion, H. (2008), “The development of female global managers: the role of mentoring and networking”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 83, pp. 29-40. Locke, K. (1996), “A funny thing happened? The management of consumer emotions in service encounters”, Organization Science, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 40-59. Lyness, K.S. and Thompson, D.E. (2000), “Climbing the corporate ladder: do female and male executives follow the same route?”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 85 No. 1, pp. 86-101. McGowan, P. and Hampton, A. (2006), “An exploration of the networking practices of female entrepreneurs”, in Henry, C. and Johnston, K. (Eds), Promoting Female Entrepreneurship, Routledge, London. Marlow, S. (2002), “Self-employed women: a part of or apart from feminist theory?”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 83-91. Mayer, H. (2006), “Economic trends and location patterns of women high-tech entrepreneurs”, in Zacharakis, A. et al. (Eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Wellesley,MA, pp. 298-309. Merriam, S.B. (1988), “Qualitative data as an attractive nuisance”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, pp. 590-601. Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, London. IJEBR 17,6 604 Miller, N.J., Besser, T.L. and Riibe, J.V. (2007), “Do strategic business networks benefit male-and female-owned small community businesses”, Journal of Small Business Strategy, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 53-74. Moensted, M. (2007), “Strategic networking in small high tech firms”, International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 15-27. Mort, G.S. and Weerawardena, J. (2006), “Networking capability and international entrepreneurship: how networks function in Australian born global firms”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 549-72. Neergaard, H., Shaw, E. and Carter, S. (2005), “The impact of gender, social capital and networks on business ownership: a research agenda”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 338-57. Neuman, W.L. (1997), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Nijkamp, P. (2003), “Entrepreneurship in a modern network economy”, Regional Studies, Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 395-405. O’Reilly, M. and Hart, M. (2003), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Invest NI/London Business School, Belfast/London. Renzulli, L.A., Aldrich, H. and Moody, J. (2000), “Family matters: gender, networks and entrepreneurial outcomes”, Social Forces, Vol. 79 No. 2, pp. 523-46. Reynolds, P., Camp, S., Bygrave, W., Autio, E. and Hay, M. (2001), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2001 Executive Report, E.M. Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO. Robinson, S. and Stubberud, H.A. (2009), “Sources of advice in entrepreneurship: gender differences in business owners’ social networks”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship, Vol. 13, pp. 83-101. Rutashobya, L.K., Allan, I.S. and Nilsson, K. (2009), “Gender, social networks and entrepreneurial outcomes in Tanzania”, Journal of African Business, Vol. 12, pp. 67-83. Sandefur, R. and Laumann, E. (1998), “A paradigm for social capital”, Rationality and Society, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 481-502. Shaw, E., Carter, S. and Brierton, J. (2001), “Unequal entrepreneurs: why female enterprise is an uphill business, The Work Foundation”, The Industrial Society Policy Paper, October, pp. 1-19. Singh, G. and Belwal, R. (2008), “Entrepreneurship in SME’s in Ethiopia: evaluating the role, prospects and problems faced by women in this emergent sector”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 120-36. Slotte-Kock, S. and Coviello, N. (2010), “Entrepreneurship research on network processes: a review and ways forward”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 31-57. Sorenson, R.L., Folker, C.A. and Brigham, K.H. (2008), “The collaborative network orientation: achieving business success through collaborative relationships”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp. 615-34. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of Qualitative Research, 2nd ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Szarka, J. (1990), “Networking and small firms”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 10-22. Taylor, D.W. and Thorpe, R. (2004), “Entrepreneurial learning: a process of co-participation”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 203-11. Developing quality in networks 605 Tichy, N.N., Tushmann, N.L. and Forbrun, C. (1979), “Social network analysis for organisations”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 507-19. Timmons, J.A. (2009), New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill International, New York, NY. Tonge, J. (2008), “Barriers to networking for women in a UK professional service”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 484-505. Tonoyan, V., Strohmeyer, R. and Wittman, W.W. (2005), “Gendered and cross-country differences in the perceived difficulty of becoming self-employed: the impact of individual resources and institutional restrictions”, Proceedings of the 25th Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference. UKRC (2010), Stronger through Change, UK Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology, Annual Review 2008-2009, available at www.ukrc4setwomen.org (accessed 1 April 2011). Yin, R.K. (2008), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage, London. Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E. and Sapienza, H.J. (2001), “Social capital, knowledge acquisition and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22 Nos 6/7, pp. 587-613.",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1108/13552551111174684",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "588--606",
number = "6",

}

Developing quality in female high-technology entrepreneurs' networks. / Hampton, Alison; McGowan, Pauric; cooper, Sarah.

Vol. 17, No. 6, 2011, p. 588-606.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Developing quality in female high-technology entrepreneurs' networks

AU - Hampton, Alison

AU - McGowan, Pauric

AU - cooper, Sarah

N1 - Reference text: Aldrich, H.E. and Zimmer, Z. (1986), “Entrepreneurship through social networks”, in Sexton, D. and Smilor, R.W. (Eds), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp. 3-23. Aldrich, H.E., Elam, A.B. and Reese, P.R. (1997), “Strong ties weak ties and strangers: do women owners differ from men in their use of networking to obtain assistance?”, in Birley, S. and MacMillan, I.C. (Eds), Entrepreneurship in a Global Context, Routledge, London, pp. 1-25. Anderson, A.R., Drakopoulou-Dodd, S. and Jack, S. (2010), “Network practices and entrepreneurial growth”, Scandinavian Journal of Management, Vol. 26, pp. 121-33. Anderson, A., Park, J. and Jack, S. (2007), “Entrepreneurial social capital: conceptualizing the social capital in new high-tech firms”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 245-72. Birley, S., Cromie, S. and Myers, A. (1991), “Entrepreneurial networks: their emergence in Ireland and overseas”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 56-74. Developing quality in networks 601 Blois, K.J. (1996), “Relationship marketing in organizational markets: when is it appropriate?”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 367-82. Brindley, C. (2005), “Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential: women and risk”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior, Vol. 2, pp. 144-61. Bru¨ derl, J. and Preisendo¨rfer, P. (1998), “Network support and the success of newly founded businesses”, Small Business Economics, Vol. 10, pp. 213-25. Brush, C.G. (1997), “Women-owned businesses: obstacles and opportunities”, Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 1-24. Brush, C.G., de Bruin, A. and Welter, F. (2009), “A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship”, International Journal of Gender Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 8-24. Butler, J. (Ed.) (2003), New Perspectives on Women Entrepreneurs, Information Age, Greenwich, CT. Butler, J.E. and Hansen, G.S. (1991), “Network evolution, entrepreneurial success and regional development”, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 3, pp. 1-16. Burt, R. (1992), “The social structure of competition”, in Nohria, N. and Eccles, R.G. (Eds), Networks and Organisations: Structure Form and Action, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, pp. 57-91. Cantzler, I. and Leijon, S. (2007), “Team-oriented women entrepreneurs: a way to modern management”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 732-46. Carson, D., Gilmore, A., Perry, C. and Gronhaug, K. (2001), Qualitative Marketing Research, Sage, London. Carson, D., Gilmore, A., Grant, K., O’Donnell, A. and Cummins, D. (2000), “A qualitative study of networking in SMEs: a marketing perspective”, in Hills, G. and Omura, G. (Eds), Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL. Carter, S. and Shaw, E. (2006), Women’s Business Ownership: Recent Research and Policy Developments, Small Business Service, UK. Carter, S., Anderson, S. and Shaw, E. (2001), Women’s Business Ownership: A Review of the Academic, Popular and Internet Literature, University of Strathclyde/Small Business Service, Glasgow. Catterall, M. and MacLaran, P. (1996), “Using computer programs to code qualitative data”, Marketing Intelligence Planning, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 29-33. Collinson, S. and Gregson, G. (2003), “Knowledge networks for new technology-based firms: an international comparison of local entrepreneurship promotion”, R&D Management, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 189-208. Cooper, S.Y. (2000), “Location and the new technology-based firm: implications for economic development”, in Oakey, R.P. and During, W. (Eds), New Technology-based Firms at the Turn of the Century, Pergamon, London, pp. 160-76. Denscombe, M. (2003), The Good Research Guide: For Small Scale Social Research Projects, 2nd ed., Open University Press/McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead/New York, NY. Donelan, H., Herman, C., Kear, K. and Kirkup, G. (2009), “Patterns of online networking for women’s career development”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 92-111. Dubini, P. and Aldrich, H. (1991), “Personal and extended networks are central to the entrepreneurial process”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 6, pp. 305-13. IJEBR 17,6 602 Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, R. (1991), Management Research: An Introduction, Sage, London. ECDGEI (2008), Evaluation on Policy: Promotion of Women Innovators and Entrepreneurship, DG Enterprise and Industry, European Commission, available at: www.ec.europa.eu/ enterprise/dgs/eval.htm (accessed 1 April 2011). Fagenson, E.A. (1993), “Personal value systems of men and women entrepreneurs versus managers”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 8 No. 5, pp. 409-30. Farr-Wharton, R. and Brunetto, Y. (2007), “Women entrepreneurs, opportunity recognition and government-sponsored business networks: a social capital perspective”, Women in Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 187-207. Faulkner, W. (2006), Genders in/of Engineering: A Research Report, March, ESRC, Swindon, pp. 1-16. Foss, L. (2010), “Research on entrepreneur networks: the case for a constructionist feminist theory perspective”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 83-102. Gamba, M. and Kleiner, B. (2001), “The old boy’s network today”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 21 Nos 8-9, pp. 101-7. Granovetter, M.S. (1982), “The strength of weak ties: a network theory revisited”, in Marsden, P.V. and Lin, N. (Eds), Social Structure and Network Analysis, Sage Publications, Beverley Hills, CA, pp. 105-30. Greve, A. and Salaff, J.W. (2003), “Social networks and entrepreneurship”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 1-22. Guba, E.G. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1994), “Competing paradigms in qualitative research”, in Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds), The Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, London. Hampton, A., Cooper, S. and McGowan, P. (2009), “Female entrepreneurial networks and networking activity in technology based ventures”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 193-214. Harding, R., Cowling, M. and Ream, M. (2004), Female Entrepreneurship: Achieving the Vision, British Chambers of Commerce, London. Harrison, R., Cooper, S. and Mason, C. (2004), “Entrepreneurial activity and the dynamics of cluster development: the case of Ottawa”, Urban Studies, Vol. 5 No. 6, pp. 1045-70. Hart, M. (2007), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Northern Ireland, Invest NI and London Business School, Belfast and London. Hite, J.M. (2005), “Evolutionary process and paths of relationally embedded network ties in emerging entrepreneurial firms”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 29, pp. 113-44. Hite, J. and Hesterly, W. (2001), “The evolution of firm networks: from emergence to early growth of the firm”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 275-86. Hoang, H. and Antoncic, B. (2003), “Network-based research in entrepreneurship – a critical review”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, pp. 165-87. Ibarra, H. (1993), “Personal networks of women and minorities in management: a conceptual framework”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 56-88. Jack, S., Drakopoulou-Dodd, S. and Anderson, A.R. (2008), “Change and the development of entrepreneurial networks over time: a processual perspective”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 20, pp. 125-59. Developing quality in networks 603 Jarillo, C.J. (1989), “Entrepreneurship and growth: the strategic use of external sources”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 4, pp. 133-47. Jenssen, J.I. and Greve, A. (2002), “Does the degree of redundancy in social networks influence the success of business start-up?”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 8 No. 5, pp. 254-67. Johannisson, B. (1986), “Network strategies: management technology for entrepreneurship and change”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 19-36. Johannisson, B. (2000), “Networking and entrepreneurial growth”, in Sexton, D.L. and Landstrom, H. (Eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp. 368-86. Kalantaridis, C. (1996), “Local production networks in the global marketplace: entrepreneurial strategies in the garment industry of Macedonia, Greece”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 12-28. Katz, J.A. and Williams, P.M. (1997), “Gender, self-employment and weak-tie networking through formal organisations”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 9, pp. 183-97. Klyver, K. and Terjesen, S. (2007), “Entrepreneurial network composition – An analysis across venture development stage and gender”, Women in Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 8, pp. 682-8. Knouse, S.B. and Webb, S.C. (2001), “Virtual networking for women and minorities”, Career Development International, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 226-9. Krackhardt, D. (1992), “The strength of strong ties: the importance of philos in organizations”, in Nohria, N. and Eccles, R. (Eds), Networks and Organisations, Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge MA, pp. 216-39. Levie, J. and Hart, M. (2009), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: United Kingdom 2009 Monitoring Report, Aston Business School, Birmingham, and The Hunter Centre for Entrepreneurship at University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Linehan, M. (2001), “Networking for female managers: career development”, The Journal of Management Development, Vol. 20 No. 10, pp. 823-9. Linehan, M. and Scullion, H. (2008), “The development of female global managers: the role of mentoring and networking”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 83, pp. 29-40. Locke, K. (1996), “A funny thing happened? The management of consumer emotions in service encounters”, Organization Science, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 40-59. Lyness, K.S. and Thompson, D.E. (2000), “Climbing the corporate ladder: do female and male executives follow the same route?”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 85 No. 1, pp. 86-101. McGowan, P. and Hampton, A. (2006), “An exploration of the networking practices of female entrepreneurs”, in Henry, C. and Johnston, K. (Eds), Promoting Female Entrepreneurship, Routledge, London. Marlow, S. (2002), “Self-employed women: a part of or apart from feminist theory?”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 83-91. Mayer, H. (2006), “Economic trends and location patterns of women high-tech entrepreneurs”, in Zacharakis, A. et al. (Eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Wellesley,MA, pp. 298-309. Merriam, S.B. (1988), “Qualitative data as an attractive nuisance”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, pp. 590-601. Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, London. IJEBR 17,6 604 Miller, N.J., Besser, T.L. and Riibe, J.V. (2007), “Do strategic business networks benefit male-and female-owned small community businesses”, Journal of Small Business Strategy, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 53-74. Moensted, M. (2007), “Strategic networking in small high tech firms”, International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 15-27. Mort, G.S. and Weerawardena, J. (2006), “Networking capability and international entrepreneurship: how networks function in Australian born global firms”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 549-72. Neergaard, H., Shaw, E. and Carter, S. (2005), “The impact of gender, social capital and networks on business ownership: a research agenda”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 338-57. Neuman, W.L. (1997), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Nijkamp, P. (2003), “Entrepreneurship in a modern network economy”, Regional Studies, Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 395-405. O’Reilly, M. and Hart, M. (2003), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Invest NI/London Business School, Belfast/London. Renzulli, L.A., Aldrich, H. and Moody, J. (2000), “Family matters: gender, networks and entrepreneurial outcomes”, Social Forces, Vol. 79 No. 2, pp. 523-46. Reynolds, P., Camp, S., Bygrave, W., Autio, E. and Hay, M. (2001), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2001 Executive Report, E.M. Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO. Robinson, S. and Stubberud, H.A. (2009), “Sources of advice in entrepreneurship: gender differences in business owners’ social networks”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship, Vol. 13, pp. 83-101. Rutashobya, L.K., Allan, I.S. and Nilsson, K. (2009), “Gender, social networks and entrepreneurial outcomes in Tanzania”, Journal of African Business, Vol. 12, pp. 67-83. Sandefur, R. and Laumann, E. (1998), “A paradigm for social capital”, Rationality and Society, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 481-502. Shaw, E., Carter, S. and Brierton, J. (2001), “Unequal entrepreneurs: why female enterprise is an uphill business, The Work Foundation”, The Industrial Society Policy Paper, October, pp. 1-19. Singh, G. and Belwal, R. (2008), “Entrepreneurship in SME’s in Ethiopia: evaluating the role, prospects and problems faced by women in this emergent sector”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 120-36. Slotte-Kock, S. and Coviello, N. (2010), “Entrepreneurship research on network processes: a review and ways forward”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 31-57. Sorenson, R.L., Folker, C.A. and Brigham, K.H. (2008), “The collaborative network orientation: achieving business success through collaborative relationships”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp. 615-34. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of Qualitative Research, 2nd ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Szarka, J. (1990), “Networking and small firms”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 10-22. Taylor, D.W. and Thorpe, R. (2004), “Entrepreneurial learning: a process of co-participation”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 203-11. Developing quality in networks 605 Tichy, N.N., Tushmann, N.L. and Forbrun, C. (1979), “Social network analysis for organisations”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 507-19. Timmons, J.A. (2009), New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill International, New York, NY. Tonge, J. (2008), “Barriers to networking for women in a UK professional service”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 484-505. Tonoyan, V., Strohmeyer, R. and Wittman, W.W. (2005), “Gendered and cross-country differences in the perceived difficulty of becoming self-employed: the impact of individual resources and institutional restrictions”, Proceedings of the 25th Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference. UKRC (2010), Stronger through Change, UK Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology, Annual Review 2008-2009, available at www.ukrc4setwomen.org (accessed 1 April 2011). Yin, R.K. (2008), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage, London. Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E. and Sapienza, H.J. (2001), “Social capital, knowledge acquisition and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22 Nos 6/7, pp. 587-613.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Purpose – Despite recognition of the value of networking, there has been little research into the networks of female entrepreneurial practitioners, particularly in the science, engineering and technology (SET) sectors, viewed traditionally as male-dominated. This paper aims to provide greater insights into the dynamics and quality of female entrepreneurial networks. Design/methodology/approach – Insights were derived through a qualitative, in-depth, interview-based study of 18 female entrepreneurs operating SET-based ventures in Northern Ireland. The use of Nvivo as the data analysis tool imposed a discipline and structure which facilitated the extraction of core insights. Findings – Aspects investigated include network type and composition; nature and frequency of engagement; and changes in network composition and networking activities through the business lifecycle. The results focus on implications of the findings for issues of quality in networks and their impact on the value of female networks. Practical implications – An understanding of these issues offers opportunities to shape government interventions to assist female entrepreneurs embarking on a venturing pathway in SET-based ventures, or those already operating in business, to be more effective in building, utilising and enhancing the quality of their networking activities. Originality/value – In exploring networking and issues of quality for female entrepreneurs operating in SET-based sectors, traditionally viewed as male-dominated, the paper considers an under-researched area of the female entrepreneurship literature.

AB - Purpose – Despite recognition of the value of networking, there has been little research into the networks of female entrepreneurial practitioners, particularly in the science, engineering and technology (SET) sectors, viewed traditionally as male-dominated. This paper aims to provide greater insights into the dynamics and quality of female entrepreneurial networks. Design/methodology/approach – Insights were derived through a qualitative, in-depth, interview-based study of 18 female entrepreneurs operating SET-based ventures in Northern Ireland. The use of Nvivo as the data analysis tool imposed a discipline and structure which facilitated the extraction of core insights. Findings – Aspects investigated include network type and composition; nature and frequency of engagement; and changes in network composition and networking activities through the business lifecycle. The results focus on implications of the findings for issues of quality in networks and their impact on the value of female networks. Practical implications – An understanding of these issues offers opportunities to shape government interventions to assist female entrepreneurs embarking on a venturing pathway in SET-based ventures, or those already operating in business, to be more effective in building, utilising and enhancing the quality of their networking activities. Originality/value – In exploring networking and issues of quality for female entrepreneurs operating in SET-based sectors, traditionally viewed as male-dominated, the paper considers an under-researched area of the female entrepreneurship literature.

U2 - 10.1108/13552551111174684

DO - 10.1108/13552551111174684

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 588

EP - 606

IS - 6

ER -