Quark nuggets are theoretical objects composed of approximately equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and are also called strangelets and nuclearites. They have been proposed as a candidate for dark matter, which constitutes ~85% of the universe’s mass and which has been a mystery for decades. Previous efforts to detect quark nuggets assumed that the nuclear-density core interacts directly with the surrounding matter so the stopping power is minimal. Tatsumi found that quark nuggets could well exist as a ferromagnetic liquid with a ~1012-T magnetic field. We find that the magnetic field produces a magnetopause with surrounding plasma, as the earth’s magnetic field produces a magnetopause with the solar wind, and substantially increases their energy deposition rate in matter. We use the magnetopause model to compute the energy deposition as a function of quark-nugget mass and to analyze testing the quark-nugget hypothesis for dark matter by observations in air, water, and land. We conclude the water option is most promising.
- magnetized quark-nuggets
- dark matter
VanDevender, J. P., VanDevender, A., Sloan, T., Swaim, C., Wilson, P., Schmitt, R. G., Zakirov, R., Blum, J., Cross, J. L., & McGinley, N. (2017). Detection of magnetized quark-nuggets, a candidate for dark matter. Scientific Reports, 7(8758), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09087-3