Detection of Dyslexic Children Using Machine Learning and Multimodal Hindi Language Eye-Gaze-Assisted Learning System

Yogesh Kumar Meena, Hubert Cecotti, Braj Bhushan, Ashish Dutta, Girijesh Prasad

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1 Citation (Scopus)
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Children with dyslexia need specific instructions for spelling and word analysis from an early age. It is important to provide appropriate tools using technology for writing aids to such children that can help them to input text, while providing multiple feedback. However, it is unclear how children with dyslexia can efficiently use a gaze-based virtual keyboard (VK). In this study, we propose to use the typing performance of a multimodal Hindi language eye-gaze-assisted learning system based on a VK to help in the reduction of tracking errors for people with writing and reading deficiencies and to detect children with dyslexia. Performance was assessed at three levels: eye tracker, eye tracker with soft switch, and touchscreen as a baseline modality using a predefined copy-typing task. The system was validated through a series of experiments with 32 children (16 dyslexic and 16 control). The results show that the workload and the usability of the system are substantially different for children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia have a lower typing performance when using the touchscreen modality or the eye tracker only. The detection of children with dyslexia from others was assessed with seven different types of classifiers using the typing speed on different words (AUC > 0.9). These results highlight the need to have fully inclusive VKs. This work demonstrates the superior use of a multimodal system with participants having unique neuropsychological conditions and that the proposed system can be used to detect children with dyslexia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-131
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number1
Early online date28 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 28 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Dyslexia
  • eye-gaze-assisted learning system
  • eye tracking (ET)
  • machine learning
  • multimodal interaction and interfaces
  • virtual keyboard (VK)


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