Deprivation, Violence, and Conflict: An Analysis of “Naxalite” Activity in the Districts of India

Vani Borooah

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    This paper poses two questions: is it a fact that there is more violence in Naxalite (i.e. Maoist) affected districts compared to districts which are free of Naxalite activity? can the fact that Naxalite activity exists in some districts of India, but not in others, be explained by differences between districts in their economic and social conditions? Using a number of sources, this study identifies districts in India in which there was significant Naxalite activity. Correlating these findings with district level economic, social, and crime indicators, the econometric results show that, after controlling for other variables, Naxalite activity in a district had, if anything, a dampening effect on its level of violent crime and crimes against women. Furthermore, even after controlling for other variables, the probability of a district being Naxalite affected rose with an increase in its poverty rate and fell with a rise in its literacy rate. So, one prong in an anti-Naxalite strategy would be to address the twin issues of poverty and illiteracy in India. As the simulations reported in the paper show, this might go a considerable way in ridding districts of Naxalite presence.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages317-333
    JournalInternational Journal of Conflict and Violence
    Volume2
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Fingerprint

    deprivation
    district
    violence
    India
    offense
    poverty
    illiteracy
    violent crime
    econometrics
    social factors
    economics
    literacy
    simulation

    Keywords

    • India
    • districts
    • deprivation
    • violent crime
    • Naxalite movement

    Cite this

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    title = "Deprivation, Violence, and Conflict: An Analysis of “Naxalite” Activity in the Districts of India",
    abstract = "This paper poses two questions: is it a fact that there is more violence in Naxalite (i.e. Maoist) affected districts compared to districts which are free of Naxalite activity? can the fact that Naxalite activity exists in some districts of India, but not in others, be explained by differences between districts in their economic and social conditions? Using a number of sources, this study identifies districts in India in which there was significant Naxalite activity. Correlating these findings with district level economic, social, and crime indicators, the econometric results show that, after controlling for other variables, Naxalite activity in a district had, if anything, a dampening effect on its level of violent crime and crimes against women. Furthermore, even after controlling for other variables, the probability of a district being Naxalite affected rose with an increase in its poverty rate and fell with a rise in its literacy rate. So, one prong in an anti-Naxalite strategy would be to address the twin issues of poverty and illiteracy in India. As the simulations reported in the paper show, this might go a considerable way in ridding districts of Naxalite presence.",
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    note = "Reference text: Bao, Shu Ming, Chang, Gene Hsin, Sachs, Jeffrey D. and Woo, Wing Thye, (2002) {"}Geographic Factors and China's Regional Development Under Market Reforms, 1978-98{"} (October 17, 2002). China Economic Review, Vol. 13, pp. 89-111. Cai, Fang, Wang, Dewen, Du, Yang (2002), “Regional disparity and economic growth in China: The impact of labor market distortions”, China Economic Review, vol. 13, pp. 197-212. Cowell, Frank. A. and Jenkins, Stephen. P. (1995), ‘How Much Inequality Can We Explain? A Methodology and an Application to the United States’, Economic Journal, vol. 105, pp. 421-30. Debroy, Bibek and Bhandari, Laveesh (2004), District Level Deprivation in the New Millenium, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, New Delhi. Demurger , Sylvie, Sachs, Jeffrey D., Woo, Wing Thye, Bao, Shu Ming, Chang, Gene Hsin and Mellinger, Andrew D. (2001), {"}Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China{"} (April 2002). NBER Working Paper No. W8897. Bhandari, Laveesh and Dubey, Amaresh (2003), Incidence of Poverty and Hunger in the Districts of India, RGCIS Working Paper, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, New Delhi. Fujita, M. and Hu, D. (2001), “Regional disparity in China 1985-1994: The effects of globalization and economic liberalization”, The Annals of Regional Science, vol. 35, pp. 3-37. Gill, K.S. (2005), “Enormous Threat of Extremism”, (The Pioneer, 30 October 2004), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/kpsgill/security/04Oct30Pio.htm Misra, Bijayanand (2001), “New Millennium Strategies for Reduction of Poverty and Regional Disparity in India.” In New Regional Development Paradigms; vol. 4, edited by James E. Nickum and Kenji Oya, 73-91. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Kannabiran, V. and Kannabiran, K. (2004), “Women’s Rights and Naxalite Groups”, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 39, pp. 4874-4877. Kurian, N.J. (2001), Regional Disparities in India, Planning Commission of India, New Delhi. http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/vision2025/regdsprty.pdf Ramana, P.V. (2005), “Naxalism in Karnataka: swift remedy needed”, Deccan Herald, 27 February 2005 http://www.observerindia.com/analysis/A386.htm Viswanathan, S. (2002), “A Crackdown in Tamil Nadu”, Frontline, vol. 19, issue 25, http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl1925/stories/20021220005003800.htm",
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    Deprivation, Violence, and Conflict: An Analysis of “Naxalite” Activity in the Districts of India. / Borooah, Vani.

    In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2008, p. 317-333.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    N1 - Reference text: Bao, Shu Ming, Chang, Gene Hsin, Sachs, Jeffrey D. and Woo, Wing Thye, (2002) "Geographic Factors and China's Regional Development Under Market Reforms, 1978-98" (October 17, 2002). China Economic Review, Vol. 13, pp. 89-111. Cai, Fang, Wang, Dewen, Du, Yang (2002), “Regional disparity and economic growth in China: The impact of labor market distortions”, China Economic Review, vol. 13, pp. 197-212. Cowell, Frank. A. and Jenkins, Stephen. P. (1995), ‘How Much Inequality Can We Explain? A Methodology and an Application to the United States’, Economic Journal, vol. 105, pp. 421-30. Debroy, Bibek and Bhandari, Laveesh (2004), District Level Deprivation in the New Millenium, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, New Delhi. Demurger , Sylvie, Sachs, Jeffrey D., Woo, Wing Thye, Bao, Shu Ming, Chang, Gene Hsin and Mellinger, Andrew D. (2001), "Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China" (April 2002). NBER Working Paper No. W8897. Bhandari, Laveesh and Dubey, Amaresh (2003), Incidence of Poverty and Hunger in the Districts of India, RGCIS Working Paper, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, New Delhi. Fujita, M. and Hu, D. (2001), “Regional disparity in China 1985-1994: The effects of globalization and economic liberalization”, The Annals of Regional Science, vol. 35, pp. 3-37. Gill, K.S. (2005), “Enormous Threat of Extremism”, (The Pioneer, 30 October 2004), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/kpsgill/security/04Oct30Pio.htm Misra, Bijayanand (2001), “New Millennium Strategies for Reduction of Poverty and Regional Disparity in India.” In New Regional Development Paradigms; vol. 4, edited by James E. Nickum and Kenji Oya, 73-91. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Kannabiran, V. and Kannabiran, K. (2004), “Women’s Rights and Naxalite Groups”, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 39, pp. 4874-4877. Kurian, N.J. (2001), Regional Disparities in India, Planning Commission of India, New Delhi. http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/vision2025/regdsprty.pdf Ramana, P.V. (2005), “Naxalism in Karnataka: swift remedy needed”, Deccan Herald, 27 February 2005 http://www.observerindia.com/analysis/A386.htm Viswanathan, S. (2002), “A Crackdown in Tamil Nadu”, Frontline, vol. 19, issue 25, http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl1925/stories/20021220005003800.htm

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    AB - This paper poses two questions: is it a fact that there is more violence in Naxalite (i.e. Maoist) affected districts compared to districts which are free of Naxalite activity? can the fact that Naxalite activity exists in some districts of India, but not in others, be explained by differences between districts in their economic and social conditions? Using a number of sources, this study identifies districts in India in which there was significant Naxalite activity. Correlating these findings with district level economic, social, and crime indicators, the econometric results show that, after controlling for other variables, Naxalite activity in a district had, if anything, a dampening effect on its level of violent crime and crimes against women. Furthermore, even after controlling for other variables, the probability of a district being Naxalite affected rose with an increase in its poverty rate and fell with a rise in its literacy rate. So, one prong in an anti-Naxalite strategy would be to address the twin issues of poverty and illiteracy in India. As the simulations reported in the paper show, this might go a considerable way in ridding districts of Naxalite presence.

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