Degradation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, insulin secretion, and glycemic effects of two novel N-terminal Ala(2)-substituted analogs of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide with preserved biological activity in vivo

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Abstract

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has significant potential in diabetes therapy due to its ability to serve as a glucose-dependent activator of insulin secretion. However, its biological activity is severely compromised by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV), which removes the N-terminal Tyr(1)-Ala(2) dipeptide from GIP. Therefore, 2 novel N-terminal Ala(2)-substituted analogs of GIP, with Ala substituted by 2-aminobutyric acid (Abu) or sarcosine (Sar), were synthesized and tested for metabolic stability and biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation with DPP IV gave half-lives for degradation of native GIP, (Abu(2))GIP, and (Sar(2))GIP to be 2.3, 1.9, and 1.6 hours, respectively, while in human plasma, the half-lives were 6.2, 7.6, and 5.4 hours, respectively. In Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells expressing the cloned human GIP receptor, native GIP, (Abu(2))GIP, and (Sar(2))GIP dose-dependently stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) production with EC50 values of 18.2, 38.5, and 54.6 nmol/L, respectively. In BRIN-BD11 cells, both (Abu(2))GIP and (Sar(2))GIP (10(-13) to 10(-8) mol/L) dose-dependently stimulated insulin secretion with significantly enhanced effects at 16.7 mmol/L compared with 5.6 mmol/L glucose. In obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice, GIP and (Sar(2))GIP significantly increased (1.4-fold to 1.5-fold; P
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-687
JournalMetabolism
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003

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