Cybersecurity Awareness and Training (CAT) Framework for Remote Working Employees

Mohammad Hijji, Gulzar Alam, Jun Zhao (Editor), Faheem Khan (Editor)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
152 Downloads (Pure)


Currently, cybersecurity plays an essential role in computing and information technology due to its direct effect on organizations’ critical assets and information. Cybersecurity is applied using integrity, availability, and confidentiality to protect organizational assets and information from various malicious attacks and vulnerabilities. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated different cybersecurity issues and challenges for businesses as employees have become accustomed to working from home. Firms are speeding up their digital transformation, making cybersecurity the current main concern. For software and hardware systems protection, organizations tend to spend an excessive amount of money procuring intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, antispyware software, and encryption mechanisms. However, these solutions are not enough, and organizations continue to suffer security risks due to the escalating list of security vulnerabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a thriving need to provide a cybersecurity awareness and training framework for remote working employees. The main objective of this research is to propose a CAT framework for cybersecurity awareness and training that will help organizations to evaluate and measure their employees’ capability in the cybersecurity domain. The proposed CAT framework will assist different organizations in effectively and efficiently managing security-related issues and challenges to protect their assets and critical information. The developed CAT framework consists of three key levels and twenty-five core practices. Case studies are conducted to evaluate the usefulness of the CAT framework in cybersecurity-based organizational settings in a real-world environment. The case studies’ results showed that the proposed CAT framework can identify employees’ capability levels and help train them to effectively overcome the cybersecurity issues and challenges faced by the organizations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8663
Number of pages23
Issue number22
Early online date9 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 9 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the Industrial Innovation and Robotics Center at the University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • artificial intelligence
  • cybersecurity
  • COVID-19
  • education
  • cybersecurity awareness
  • training framework


Dive into the research topics of 'Cybersecurity Awareness and Training (CAT) Framework for Remote Working Employees'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this