Current Source Density Estimation Enhances the Performance of Motor-Imagery Related Brain-Computer Interface

Dheeraj Rathee, Haider Raza, Girijesh Prasad, Hubert Cecotti

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    33 Citations (Scopus)
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    The objective is to evaluate the impact of EEG referencing schemes and spherical surface Laplacian (SSL) methods on the classification performance of motor-imagery (MI)-related brain-computer interface systems. Two EEG referencing schemes: common referencing and common average referencing and three surface Laplacian methods: current source density (CSD), finite difference method, and SSL using realistic head model were implemented separately for pre-processing of the EEG signals recorded at the scalp. A combination of filter bank common spatial filter for features extraction and support vector machine for classification was used for both pairwise binary classifications and four-class classification of MI tasks. The study provides three major outcomes: 1) the CSD method performs better than CR, providing a significant improvement of 3.02% and 5.59% across six binary classification tasks and four-class classification task, respectively; 2) the combination of a greater number of channels at the pre-processing stage as compared with the feature extraction stage yields better classification accuracies for all the Laplacian methods; and 3) the efficiency of all the surface Laplacian methods reduced significantly in the case of a fewer number of channels considered during the pre-processing.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2461-2471
    Number of pages11
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
    Issue number12
    Early online date13 Jul 2017
    Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 29 Nov 2019


    • Motor imagery
    • Brain-computer interface
    • Preprocessing
    • Spatial filtering
    • Spherical surface Laplacian.


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