The objective is to evaluate the impact of EEG referencing schemes and spherical surface Laplacian (SSL) methods on the classification performance of motor-imagery (MI)-related brain-computer interface systems. Two EEG referencing schemes: common referencing and common average referencing and three surface Laplacian methods: current source density (CSD), finite difference method, and SSL using realistic head model were implemented separately for pre-processing of the EEG signals recorded at the scalp. A combination of filter bank common spatial filter for features extraction and support vector machine for classification was used for both pairwise binary classifications and four-class classification of MI tasks. The study provides three major outcomes: 1) the CSD method performs better than CR, providing a significant improvement of 3.02% and 5.59% across six binary classification tasks and four-class classification task, respectively; 2) the combination of a greater number of channels at the pre-processing stage as compared with the feature extraction stage yields better classification accuracies for all the Laplacian methods; and 3) the efficiency of all the surface Laplacian methods reduced significantly in the case of a fewer number of channels considered during the pre-processing.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering|
|Early online date||13 Jul 2017|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 29 Nov 2019|
- Motor imagery
- Brain-computer interface
- Spatial filtering
- Spherical surface Laplacian.