Cup-to-disc and arteriole-to-venule ratios in children aged 6-7 and 12-13 years

Julie McClelland, Lisa O'Donoghue, Marta McIntyre, Kathryn Saunders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Little data exist detailing the normal cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole-to-venule (A/V) ratios of school age children. In addition, controversy exists in the literature regarding associations between CD and A/V ratios and visual and biometric parameters. The present study investigates the success rates of obtaining useable optic disc images from the portable Nidek Handheld Non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NM-200D) from school-age children. This study also describes the distribution of cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole to venule (A/V) ratios in children aged 6-7 years of age and 12-13 years of age. In addition, the present study explores associations between CD and A/V ratios and a range of visual function and biometric parameters in children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Methods: Fundus images were obtained from 195 6-7 year old children and 227 12-13 year old children participating in a wider study of visual function in childhood (Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction Study [NICER]). ImageJ software was used to obtain CD and A/V ratios from the digital images. Visual function measures and biometric parameters were also available for all participants including; cycloplegic refractive error, LogMAR vision, corneal curvature, axial length, height and weight.
LanguageEnglish
JournalOPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS
Volume32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Venules
Arterioles
Mydriatics
Northern Ireland
Refractive Errors
Optic Disk
Software
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • arteriole to venule ratio
  • children
  • cup-to-disc ratio
  • digital images

Cite this

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title = "Cup-to-disc and arteriole-to-venule ratios in children aged 6-7 and 12-13 years",
abstract = "Purpose: Little data exist detailing the normal cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole-to-venule (A/V) ratios of school age children. In addition, controversy exists in the literature regarding associations between CD and A/V ratios and visual and biometric parameters. The present study investigates the success rates of obtaining useable optic disc images from the portable Nidek Handheld Non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NM-200D) from school-age children. This study also describes the distribution of cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole to venule (A/V) ratios in children aged 6-7 years of age and 12-13 years of age. In addition, the present study explores associations between CD and A/V ratios and a range of visual function and biometric parameters in children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Methods: Fundus images were obtained from 195 6-7 year old children and 227 12-13 year old children participating in a wider study of visual function in childhood (Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction Study [NICER]). ImageJ software was used to obtain CD and A/V ratios from the digital images. Visual function measures and biometric parameters were also available for all participants including; cycloplegic refractive error, LogMAR vision, corneal curvature, axial length, height and weight.",
keywords = "arteriole to venule ratio, children, cup-to-disc ratio, digital images",
author = "Julie McClelland and Lisa O'Donoghue and Marta McIntyre and Kathryn Saunders",
note = "Reference text: 1. Biglan AW. Glaucoma in children: are we making progress? J AAPOS 2006; 10: 7-21. 2. T{\"o}rnquist AL, Olsson M, Martin L, Winiarski J & Fahnehjelm KT. Visual field results and optic disc morphology in patients treated with allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in childhood. Acta Ophthalmol 2011; 89: 62-69. 3. Wikstrand MH, H{\aa}rd AL, Niklasson A & Hellstr{\"o}m A. Birth weight deviation and early postnatal growth are related to optic nerve morphology at school age in children born preterm. Pediatr Res 2010; 67: 325-329. 4. Zheng Y, Cheung CY, Wong TY, Mitchell P & Aung T. Influence of Height, Weight and Body Mass Index on Optic Disc Parameters. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51: 2998-3002. 5. Marsh BC, Cantor LB, Wudunn D et al. Optic Nerve Head (ONH) Topographic Analysis by Stratus OCT in Normal Subjects: Correlation to Disc Size, Age, and Ethnicity. J Glaucoma 2010; 19: 310-318. 6. Huynh SC, Wang XY, Rochtchina E, Crowston JG & Mitchell P. Distribution of optic disc parameters measured by OCT: findings from a population-based study of 6-year-old Australian children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47: 3276-3285. 7. Larsson E, Nuija E & Alm A. The optic nerve head assessed with HRT in 5-16-year-old normal children: normal values, repeatability and interocular difference. Acta Ophthalmol 2009 Dec 21. [Epub ahead of print]. 8. Erkkila H & Laatikainen L. Characteristics of optic disc in healthy school children. Acta Ophthalmol 1979; 57: 914-921. 9. Ramrattan RS, Wolfs RC, Jonas JB, Hofman A & de Jong PT. Determinants of optic disc characteristics in a general population: The Rotterdam Study. Ophthalmology 1999; 106: 1588-1596. 10. Tong L, Saw SM, Chua WH et al. Optic disk and retinal characteristics in myopic children. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 138: 160-162. 11. Taylor B, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ et al. Body mass index and its effects on retinal vessel diameter in 6-year-old children. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 1527-1533. 12. Cheung N, Tong L, Tikellis G et al. Relationship of retinal vascular caliber with optic disc diameter in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48: 4945-4948. 13. Yogesan K, Constable IJ, Barry CJ et al. Telemedicine screening of diabetic retinopathy using hand-held fundus camera. J Telemed Telecare 2000; 6: 219–23. 14. Yogesan K, Constable IJ, Barry CJ et al. Evaluation of a portable fundus camera for use in teleophthalmologic diagnosis of glaucoma. J Glaucoma 1999; 8: 297–301. 15. O'Donoghue L, McClelland JF, Logan NS et al. Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in Northern Ireland. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010b; 94: 1155-1159. 16. O'Donoghue L, Saunders KJ, McClelland JF et al. Sampling and measurement methods for a study of childhood refractive error in a UK population. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010a; 94: 1150-1154. 17. Kobayashi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Kojima A, et al. Fundus characteristics of high myopia in children. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2005; 49: 306-311. 18. Yasuzumi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Yoshida T, et al. Peripapillary crescent enlargement in highly myopic eyes evaluated by fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Br J Ophthalmol 2003; 87: 1088-1090. 19. Klais CMC, Grupchev ID, McGhee CNJ & Donaldson ML. Photoscreening for diabetic retinopathy: a comparison of image quality between film photography and digital imaging. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2004; 32: 393–396. 20. Leung H, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E et al. Relationships between Age, Blood Pressure, and Retinal Vessel Diameters in an Older Population. Inves Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44: 2900-2904. 21. Swanson MW. The 97.5th and 99.5th Percentile of Vertical Cup Disc Ratio in the United States. Optom Vis Sci 2011; 88: 86-92. 22. Bland JM & Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986; 1: 307–310. 23. McAlinden C, Khadka J, Pesudovs K. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2011; 31: 330–338. 24. Park HJ, Hampp C & Demer JL. Longitudinal Study of Optic Cup Progression in Children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2010; 28: 1-6. 25. Sing NM, Anderson SF & Townsend JC. The normal optic nerve head. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77: 293-301. 26. Ritch R & Caronia RM. Classic papers in glaucoma. Kugler Publications 2000. The Hague. The Netherlands. 27. Ip JM, Huynh SC, Kifley A et al. Variation of the contribution from axial length and other oculometric parameters to refraction by age and ethnicity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48: 4846-4853. 28. Wolffsohn JS, Napper GA, Ho SM, Jaworski A & Pollard TL. Improving the description of the retinal vasculature and patient history taking for monitoring systemic hypertension. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2001; 21: 441-449. 29. Alibrahim E, Donaghue KC, Rogers S et al. Retinal Vascular Caliber and Risk of Retinopathy in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Ophthalmology 2006; 113: 1499-1503. 30. Wang JJ, Taylor B, Wong TY et al. Retinal Vessel Diameters and Obesity: A Population-Based Study in Older Persons. Obesity 2006; 14: 206–214. 31. Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Leung H et al. Hypertensive Retinal Vessel Wall Signs in a General Older Population. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Hypertension 2003; 42: 534-541.",
year = "2012",
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Cup-to-disc and arteriole-to-venule ratios in children aged 6-7 and 12-13 years. / McClelland, Julie; O'Donoghue, Lisa; McIntyre, Marta; Saunders, Kathryn.

In: OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, Vol. 32, 01.01.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cup-to-disc and arteriole-to-venule ratios in children aged 6-7 and 12-13 years

AU - McClelland, Julie

AU - O'Donoghue, Lisa

AU - McIntyre, Marta

AU - Saunders, Kathryn

N1 - Reference text: 1. Biglan AW. Glaucoma in children: are we making progress? J AAPOS 2006; 10: 7-21. 2. Törnquist AL, Olsson M, Martin L, Winiarski J & Fahnehjelm KT. Visual field results and optic disc morphology in patients treated with allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in childhood. Acta Ophthalmol 2011; 89: 62-69. 3. Wikstrand MH, Hård AL, Niklasson A & Hellström A. Birth weight deviation and early postnatal growth are related to optic nerve morphology at school age in children born preterm. Pediatr Res 2010; 67: 325-329. 4. Zheng Y, Cheung CY, Wong TY, Mitchell P & Aung T. Influence of Height, Weight and Body Mass Index on Optic Disc Parameters. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51: 2998-3002. 5. Marsh BC, Cantor LB, Wudunn D et al. Optic Nerve Head (ONH) Topographic Analysis by Stratus OCT in Normal Subjects: Correlation to Disc Size, Age, and Ethnicity. J Glaucoma 2010; 19: 310-318. 6. Huynh SC, Wang XY, Rochtchina E, Crowston JG & Mitchell P. Distribution of optic disc parameters measured by OCT: findings from a population-based study of 6-year-old Australian children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47: 3276-3285. 7. Larsson E, Nuija E & Alm A. The optic nerve head assessed with HRT in 5-16-year-old normal children: normal values, repeatability and interocular difference. Acta Ophthalmol 2009 Dec 21. [Epub ahead of print]. 8. Erkkila H & Laatikainen L. Characteristics of optic disc in healthy school children. Acta Ophthalmol 1979; 57: 914-921. 9. Ramrattan RS, Wolfs RC, Jonas JB, Hofman A & de Jong PT. Determinants of optic disc characteristics in a general population: The Rotterdam Study. Ophthalmology 1999; 106: 1588-1596. 10. Tong L, Saw SM, Chua WH et al. Optic disk and retinal characteristics in myopic children. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 138: 160-162. 11. Taylor B, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ et al. Body mass index and its effects on retinal vessel diameter in 6-year-old children. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 1527-1533. 12. Cheung N, Tong L, Tikellis G et al. Relationship of retinal vascular caliber with optic disc diameter in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48: 4945-4948. 13. Yogesan K, Constable IJ, Barry CJ et al. Telemedicine screening of diabetic retinopathy using hand-held fundus camera. J Telemed Telecare 2000; 6: 219–23. 14. Yogesan K, Constable IJ, Barry CJ et al. Evaluation of a portable fundus camera for use in teleophthalmologic diagnosis of glaucoma. J Glaucoma 1999; 8: 297–301. 15. O'Donoghue L, McClelland JF, Logan NS et al. Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in Northern Ireland. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010b; 94: 1155-1159. 16. O'Donoghue L, Saunders KJ, McClelland JF et al. Sampling and measurement methods for a study of childhood refractive error in a UK population. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010a; 94: 1150-1154. 17. Kobayashi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Kojima A, et al. Fundus characteristics of high myopia in children. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2005; 49: 306-311. 18. Yasuzumi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Yoshida T, et al. Peripapillary crescent enlargement in highly myopic eyes evaluated by fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Br J Ophthalmol 2003; 87: 1088-1090. 19. Klais CMC, Grupchev ID, McGhee CNJ & Donaldson ML. Photoscreening for diabetic retinopathy: a comparison of image quality between film photography and digital imaging. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2004; 32: 393–396. 20. Leung H, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E et al. Relationships between Age, Blood Pressure, and Retinal Vessel Diameters in an Older Population. Inves Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44: 2900-2904. 21. Swanson MW. The 97.5th and 99.5th Percentile of Vertical Cup Disc Ratio in the United States. Optom Vis Sci 2011; 88: 86-92. 22. Bland JM & Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986; 1: 307–310. 23. McAlinden C, Khadka J, Pesudovs K. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2011; 31: 330–338. 24. Park HJ, Hampp C & Demer JL. Longitudinal Study of Optic Cup Progression in Children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2010; 28: 1-6. 25. Sing NM, Anderson SF & Townsend JC. The normal optic nerve head. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77: 293-301. 26. Ritch R & Caronia RM. Classic papers in glaucoma. Kugler Publications 2000. The Hague. The Netherlands. 27. Ip JM, Huynh SC, Kifley A et al. Variation of the contribution from axial length and other oculometric parameters to refraction by age and ethnicity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48: 4846-4853. 28. Wolffsohn JS, Napper GA, Ho SM, Jaworski A & Pollard TL. Improving the description of the retinal vasculature and patient history taking for monitoring systemic hypertension. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2001; 21: 441-449. 29. Alibrahim E, Donaghue KC, Rogers S et al. Retinal Vascular Caliber and Risk of Retinopathy in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Ophthalmology 2006; 113: 1499-1503. 30. Wang JJ, Taylor B, Wong TY et al. Retinal Vessel Diameters and Obesity: A Population-Based Study in Older Persons. Obesity 2006; 14: 206–214. 31. Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Leung H et al. Hypertensive Retinal Vessel Wall Signs in a General Older Population. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Hypertension 2003; 42: 534-541.

PY - 2012/1/1

Y1 - 2012/1/1

N2 - Purpose: Little data exist detailing the normal cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole-to-venule (A/V) ratios of school age children. In addition, controversy exists in the literature regarding associations between CD and A/V ratios and visual and biometric parameters. The present study investigates the success rates of obtaining useable optic disc images from the portable Nidek Handheld Non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NM-200D) from school-age children. This study also describes the distribution of cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole to venule (A/V) ratios in children aged 6-7 years of age and 12-13 years of age. In addition, the present study explores associations between CD and A/V ratios and a range of visual function and biometric parameters in children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Methods: Fundus images were obtained from 195 6-7 year old children and 227 12-13 year old children participating in a wider study of visual function in childhood (Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction Study [NICER]). ImageJ software was used to obtain CD and A/V ratios from the digital images. Visual function measures and biometric parameters were also available for all participants including; cycloplegic refractive error, LogMAR vision, corneal curvature, axial length, height and weight.

AB - Purpose: Little data exist detailing the normal cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole-to-venule (A/V) ratios of school age children. In addition, controversy exists in the literature regarding associations between CD and A/V ratios and visual and biometric parameters. The present study investigates the success rates of obtaining useable optic disc images from the portable Nidek Handheld Non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NM-200D) from school-age children. This study also describes the distribution of cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole to venule (A/V) ratios in children aged 6-7 years of age and 12-13 years of age. In addition, the present study explores associations between CD and A/V ratios and a range of visual function and biometric parameters in children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Methods: Fundus images were obtained from 195 6-7 year old children and 227 12-13 year old children participating in a wider study of visual function in childhood (Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction Study [NICER]). ImageJ software was used to obtain CD and A/V ratios from the digital images. Visual function measures and biometric parameters were also available for all participants including; cycloplegic refractive error, LogMAR vision, corneal curvature, axial length, height and weight.

KW - arteriole to venule ratio

KW - children

KW - cup-to-disc ratio

KW - digital images

U2 - 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00878.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00878.x

M3 - Article

VL - 32

JO - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists

T2 - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists

JF - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists

SN - 0275-5408

ER -