Cup-to-disc and arteriole-to-venule ratios in children aged 6-7 and 12-13 years

Julie McClelland, Lisa O'Donoghue, Marta McIntyre, Kathryn Saunders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Little data exist detailing the normal cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole-to-venule (A/V) ratios of school age children. In addition, controversy exists in the literature regarding associations between CD and A/V ratios and visual and biometric parameters. The present study investigates the success rates of obtaining useable optic disc images from the portable Nidek Handheld Non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NM-200D) from school-age children. This study also describes the distribution of cup-to-disc (CD) ratios and arteriole to venule (A/V) ratios in children aged 6-7 years of age and 12-13 years of age. In addition, the present study explores associations between CD and A/V ratios and a range of visual function and biometric parameters in children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Methods: Fundus images were obtained from 195 6-7 year old children and 227 12-13 year old children participating in a wider study of visual function in childhood (Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction Study [NICER]). ImageJ software was used to obtain CD and A/V ratios from the digital images. Visual function measures and biometric parameters were also available for all participants including; cycloplegic refractive error, LogMAR vision, corneal curvature, axial length, height and weight.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


  • arteriole to venule ratio
  • children
  • cup-to-disc ratio
  • digital images


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