Crosstalk between Gut and Brain in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Gut Microbiota Modulation Strategies

Umair Shabbir, Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Aysha Sameen, Deog-Hwan Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The gut microbiota (GM) represents a diverse and dynamic population of microorganisms
and about 100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells that dwell in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies
suggest that the GM can influence the health of the host, and several factors can modify the GM
composition, such as diet, drug intake, lifestyle, and geographical locations. Gut dysbiosis can affect
brain immune homeostasis through the microbiota–gut–brain axis and can play a key role in the
pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The
relationship between gut dysbiosis and AD is still elusive, but emerging evidence suggests that it can
enhance the secretion of lipopolysaccharides and amyloids that may disturb intestinal permeability
and the blood–brain barrier. In addition, it can promote the hallmarks of AD, such as oxidative
stress, neuroinflammation, amyloid-beta formation, insulin resistance, and ultimately the causation
of neural death. Poor dietary habits and aging, along with inflammatory responses due to dysbiosis,
may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Thus, GM modulation through diet, probiotics, or fecal
microbiota transplantation could represent potential therapeutics in AD. In this review, we discuss
the role of GM dysbiosis in AD and potential therapeutic strategies to modulate GM in AD.
Original languageEnglish
Article number690
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalNutrients
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 21 Feb 2021

Keywords

  • gut dysbiosis
  • microbial metabolites
  • diet
  • probiotics
  • neurodegenerative diseases

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