Critical difference applied to exercise-induced oxidative stress: the dilemma of distinguishing biological from statistical change

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Abstract

Even though intense exercise has traditionally been associated with a statistically significant accumulation of blood-borne biomarkers of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, it remains to be determined if the oxidative stress response is biologically significant. To examine biological significance, we calculated the critical difference of selected biomarkers of oxidants–antioxidants in the peripheral circulation of ten male subjects aged 24±3 years. Venous blood was drawn in the resting supine position every hour over an 8-h period (Study 1). As proof-of-concept, supine venous blood was also obtained at rest and following maximal cycling exercise in a separate group of 13 males, mean age 22±3 years (Study 2). The critical difference of electron paramagnetic resonance spintrapped alkoxyl free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, retinol, lycopene, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene was calculated as 121%, 28%, 50%, 9%, 29%, 106%, 13%, 28% and 107%, respectively (Study 1). Maximal exercise wasassociated with a statistically significant (P
LanguageEnglish
Pages377-384
JournalJournal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Volume68
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2012

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Oxidative Stress
Free Radicals
Biomarkers
Lipid Peroxides
Supine Position
beta Carotene
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
alpha-Tocopherol
Malondialdehyde
Vitamin A
Oxidants
Lipid Peroxidation
Ascorbic Acid
Antioxidants
alpha-carotene
alkoxyl radical
lycopene

Cite this

@article{dfbf12248d684bcc97804a3442fd0bf6,
title = "Critical difference applied to exercise-induced oxidative stress: the dilemma of distinguishing biological from statistical change",
abstract = "Even though intense exercise has traditionally been associated with a statistically significant accumulation of blood-borne biomarkers of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, it remains to be determined if the oxidative stress response is biologically significant. To examine biological significance, we calculated the critical difference of selected biomarkers of oxidants–antioxidants in the peripheral circulation of ten male subjects aged 24±3 years. Venous blood was drawn in the resting supine position every hour over an 8-h period (Study 1). As proof-of-concept, supine venous blood was also obtained at rest and following maximal cycling exercise in a separate group of 13 males, mean age 22±3 years (Study 2). The critical difference of electron paramagnetic resonance spintrapped alkoxyl free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, retinol, lycopene, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene was calculated as 121{\%}, 28{\%}, 50{\%}, 9{\%}, 29{\%}, 106{\%}, 13{\%}, 28{\%} and 107{\%}, respectively (Study 1). Maximal exercise wasassociated with a statistically significant (P",
author = "Gareth Davison",
note = "Reference text: 1. Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK, Ambrose J, Rice RE, Wiley RL (2000) Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 32:1576–1581 2. Ashton T, Rowlands CC, Jones E, Young IS, Jackson SK, Davies B, Peters JR (1998) Electron spin resonance spectroscopic detection of oxygen-centred radicals in human serum following exhaustive exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 77:498–502 3. Ashton T, Young IS, Peters JR, Jones E, Jackson SK, Davies B, Rowlands CC (1999) Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: an ascorbic acid intervention study. J Appl Physiol 87:2032–2036 4. Bailey DM, Davies B, Young IS (2001) Intermittent hypoxic training: implications for lipid peroxidation induced by acute normoxic exercise in active men. Clin Sci 101:465–475 5. Bailey DM, Lawrenson L, McEneny J, Young IS, James PE, Jackson SK, Henry RR, Mathieu-Costello O, McCord JM, Richardson RS (2007) Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic evidence of exercise-induced free radical accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Res 41:182–190 6. Bailey DM, McEneny J, Mathieu-Costello O, Henry RR, James PE, McCord JM, Pietri S, Young IS, Richardson RS (2010) Sedentary aging increases resting and exerciseinduced intramuscular free radical formation. J Appl Physiol 109:449–456 7. Bridges AB, Fisher TC, Scott N, McLaren M, Belch JJF (1992) Circadian variation of white blood cell function and free radical in normal volunteers. Free Rad Res Comm 16:89–97 8. Bridges AB, Scott NA, McNeill GP, Pringle TH, Belch JJF (1992) Circadian variation of white blood cell aggregation and free radical indices in men with ischaemic heart disease. Eur Heart J 13:1632–1636 9. Catignani GL, Bieri JG (1983) Simulataneous determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Clin Chem 29:708–712 10. Dacie JV, Lewis SM(1968) Practical haematology. Churchill, London 11. Davison GW, Ashton T, Davies B, Bailey DM (2008) In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance characterisation of free radicals: relevance to exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and implications of ascorbate prophylaxis. Free Radic Res 42:379–386 12. Davison GW, Ashton T, George L, Young IS, McEneny J, Davies B, Jackson SK, Peters JR, Bailey DM (2008) Molecular detection of exercise-induced free radicals following ascorbate prophylaxis in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled study. Diabetologia 5:2049–2059 13. Davison GW, George L, Jackson SK, Young IS, Davies B, Bailey DM, Peters JR, Ashton T (2002) Exercise, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med 33:1543–1551 14. Davison GW, Morgan RM, Hiscock N, Garcia JM, Grace F, Boisseau N, Davies B, Castell L, McEneny J, Young IS, Hullin D, Ashton T, Bailey DM (2006) Manipulation of systemic oxygen flux by acute exercise and normobaric hypoxia: implications for reactive oxygen species generation. Clin Sci 110:133–141 15. Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of the percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37:247–248 16. Fogarty MC, Hughes CM, Burke G, Brown J, Trinick TR, Duly E, Bailey DM, Davison GW (2011) Exercise-induced lipid peroxidation: implications for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and systemic free radical production. Environ Mol Mut 52:35–42 Exercise and oxidative stress 383 17. Fraser CG, Fogarty Y (1989) Interpreting laboratory results. BMJ 298:1659–1660 18. Fraser CG, Harris EK (1989) Generation and application of data on biological variation in clinical chemistry. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 27:409–437 19. Gallagher SK, Johnson LK, Milne DB (1992) Short- and long-term variability of selected indices related to nutritional status. II. Vitamins, lipids, and protein indices. Clin Chem 38:1449–1453 20. Halliwell B (2009) The wanderings of a free radical. Free Radic Biol Med 46:531–542 21. Kolosova NC,Mel’nikov VN, Shorin IP, Khasnulin VI (1983) Role of photoperiodicity and circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids in synchronising the fluctuations in free radical oxidation of lipids in rats. Biull Eksp Biol Med 96:99–101 22. Maes M, Weeckk S, Wauters A, Neels H, Scharpe S, Verkerk R, Demedts P, Desnyder R (1996) Biological variation in serum vitamin E concentrations: relation to serum lipids. Clin Chem 42:1824–1831 23. Randle PJ, Garland PB, Hales CN, Newsholme EA (1963) The glucose fatty-acid cycle. Its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1:785–789 24. Thurnham DI, Smith E, Flora PS (1988) Concurrent liquidchromatographic assay of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin in plasma with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clin Chem 34:377–381 25. Vuilleumier JP, Keck E (1989) Fluorometric assay of vitamin C in biological materials using a centrifugal analyser with fluorescence attachment. J Micronutr Anal 5:25–34 26. Wolff SP (1994) Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hypoperoxides. Methods Enzymol 233:183–189 27. Young IS, Trimble ER (1991) Measurement of malondialdehyde in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Ann Clin Biochem 28:504– 508",
year = "2012",
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T1 - Critical difference applied to exercise-induced oxidative stress: the dilemma of distinguishing biological from statistical change

AU - Davison, Gareth

N1 - Reference text: 1. Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK, Ambrose J, Rice RE, Wiley RL (2000) Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 32:1576–1581 2. Ashton T, Rowlands CC, Jones E, Young IS, Jackson SK, Davies B, Peters JR (1998) Electron spin resonance spectroscopic detection of oxygen-centred radicals in human serum following exhaustive exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 77:498–502 3. Ashton T, Young IS, Peters JR, Jones E, Jackson SK, Davies B, Rowlands CC (1999) Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: an ascorbic acid intervention study. J Appl Physiol 87:2032–2036 4. Bailey DM, Davies B, Young IS (2001) Intermittent hypoxic training: implications for lipid peroxidation induced by acute normoxic exercise in active men. Clin Sci 101:465–475 5. Bailey DM, Lawrenson L, McEneny J, Young IS, James PE, Jackson SK, Henry RR, Mathieu-Costello O, McCord JM, Richardson RS (2007) Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic evidence of exercise-induced free radical accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Res 41:182–190 6. Bailey DM, McEneny J, Mathieu-Costello O, Henry RR, James PE, McCord JM, Pietri S, Young IS, Richardson RS (2010) Sedentary aging increases resting and exerciseinduced intramuscular free radical formation. J Appl Physiol 109:449–456 7. Bridges AB, Fisher TC, Scott N, McLaren M, Belch JJF (1992) Circadian variation of white blood cell function and free radical in normal volunteers. Free Rad Res Comm 16:89–97 8. Bridges AB, Scott NA, McNeill GP, Pringle TH, Belch JJF (1992) Circadian variation of white blood cell aggregation and free radical indices in men with ischaemic heart disease. Eur Heart J 13:1632–1636 9. Catignani GL, Bieri JG (1983) Simulataneous determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Clin Chem 29:708–712 10. Dacie JV, Lewis SM(1968) Practical haematology. Churchill, London 11. Davison GW, Ashton T, Davies B, Bailey DM (2008) In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance characterisation of free radicals: relevance to exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and implications of ascorbate prophylaxis. Free Radic Res 42:379–386 12. Davison GW, Ashton T, George L, Young IS, McEneny J, Davies B, Jackson SK, Peters JR, Bailey DM (2008) Molecular detection of exercise-induced free radicals following ascorbate prophylaxis in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled study. Diabetologia 5:2049–2059 13. Davison GW, George L, Jackson SK, Young IS, Davies B, Bailey DM, Peters JR, Ashton T (2002) Exercise, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med 33:1543–1551 14. Davison GW, Morgan RM, Hiscock N, Garcia JM, Grace F, Boisseau N, Davies B, Castell L, McEneny J, Young IS, Hullin D, Ashton T, Bailey DM (2006) Manipulation of systemic oxygen flux by acute exercise and normobaric hypoxia: implications for reactive oxygen species generation. Clin Sci 110:133–141 15. Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of the percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37:247–248 16. Fogarty MC, Hughes CM, Burke G, Brown J, Trinick TR, Duly E, Bailey DM, Davison GW (2011) Exercise-induced lipid peroxidation: implications for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and systemic free radical production. Environ Mol Mut 52:35–42 Exercise and oxidative stress 383 17. Fraser CG, Fogarty Y (1989) Interpreting laboratory results. BMJ 298:1659–1660 18. Fraser CG, Harris EK (1989) Generation and application of data on biological variation in clinical chemistry. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 27:409–437 19. Gallagher SK, Johnson LK, Milne DB (1992) Short- and long-term variability of selected indices related to nutritional status. II. Vitamins, lipids, and protein indices. Clin Chem 38:1449–1453 20. Halliwell B (2009) The wanderings of a free radical. Free Radic Biol Med 46:531–542 21. Kolosova NC,Mel’nikov VN, Shorin IP, Khasnulin VI (1983) Role of photoperiodicity and circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids in synchronising the fluctuations in free radical oxidation of lipids in rats. Biull Eksp Biol Med 96:99–101 22. Maes M, Weeckk S, Wauters A, Neels H, Scharpe S, Verkerk R, Demedts P, Desnyder R (1996) Biological variation in serum vitamin E concentrations: relation to serum lipids. Clin Chem 42:1824–1831 23. Randle PJ, Garland PB, Hales CN, Newsholme EA (1963) The glucose fatty-acid cycle. Its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1:785–789 24. Thurnham DI, Smith E, Flora PS (1988) Concurrent liquidchromatographic assay of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin in plasma with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clin Chem 34:377–381 25. Vuilleumier JP, Keck E (1989) Fluorometric assay of vitamin C in biological materials using a centrifugal analyser with fluorescence attachment. J Micronutr Anal 5:25–34 26. Wolff SP (1994) Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hypoperoxides. Methods Enzymol 233:183–189 27. Young IS, Trimble ER (1991) Measurement of malondialdehyde in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Ann Clin Biochem 28:504– 508

PY - 2012/3/15

Y1 - 2012/3/15

N2 - Even though intense exercise has traditionally been associated with a statistically significant accumulation of blood-borne biomarkers of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, it remains to be determined if the oxidative stress response is biologically significant. To examine biological significance, we calculated the critical difference of selected biomarkers of oxidants–antioxidants in the peripheral circulation of ten male subjects aged 24±3 years. Venous blood was drawn in the resting supine position every hour over an 8-h period (Study 1). As proof-of-concept, supine venous blood was also obtained at rest and following maximal cycling exercise in a separate group of 13 males, mean age 22±3 years (Study 2). The critical difference of electron paramagnetic resonance spintrapped alkoxyl free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, retinol, lycopene, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene was calculated as 121%, 28%, 50%, 9%, 29%, 106%, 13%, 28% and 107%, respectively (Study 1). Maximal exercise wasassociated with a statistically significant (P

AB - Even though intense exercise has traditionally been associated with a statistically significant accumulation of blood-borne biomarkers of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, it remains to be determined if the oxidative stress response is biologically significant. To examine biological significance, we calculated the critical difference of selected biomarkers of oxidants–antioxidants in the peripheral circulation of ten male subjects aged 24±3 years. Venous blood was drawn in the resting supine position every hour over an 8-h period (Study 1). As proof-of-concept, supine venous blood was also obtained at rest and following maximal cycling exercise in a separate group of 13 males, mean age 22±3 years (Study 2). The critical difference of electron paramagnetic resonance spintrapped alkoxyl free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, retinol, lycopene, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene was calculated as 121%, 28%, 50%, 9%, 29%, 106%, 13%, 28% and 107%, respectively (Study 1). Maximal exercise wasassociated with a statistically significant (P

U2 - 10.1007/s13105-012-0149-z

DO - 10.1007/s13105-012-0149-z

M3 - Article

VL - 68

SP - 377

EP - 384

JO - Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

T2 - Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

JF - Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

SN - 1138-7548

ER -