COVID-19 pandemic and vitamin D: rising trends in status and in daily amounts of vitamin D provided by supplements

Malachi J McKenna, Oonagh C Lyons, Mary AT Flynn, Rachel K Crowley, Patrick J Twomey, Mark T Kilbane

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)
    36 Downloads (Pure)


    Objectives: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there have been plausible suggestions about the need to augment vitamin D intake by supplementation in order to prevent SARS-CoV2 infection and reduce mortality. Some groups have advocated supplementation for all adults, but governmental agencies have advocated targeted supplementation. We sought to explore the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on both vitamin D status and on the dose of new-to-market vitamin D supplements. Setting: University hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Participants: Laboratory-based samples of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) (n=100 505). Primary and secondary outcome measures: Primary outcomes: comparing yearly average 25OHD prior to the pandemic (April 2019 to March 2020) with during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 2021) and comparing the dose of new-to-market vitamin D supplements between 2017 and 2021 (n=2689). Secondary outcome: comparing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D excess during the two time periods. Results: The average yearly serum 25OHD measurement increased by 2.8 nmol/L (61.4, 95% CI 61.5 to 61.7 vs 58.6, 95% CI 58.4 to 58.9, p
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere059477
    JournalBMJ Open
    Issue number8
    Early online date4 Aug 2022
    Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 4 Aug 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


    • Nutrition and metabolism
    • 1506
    • 2474
    • 1714
    • COVID-19
    • Calcium & bone
    • Humans
    • Vitamins
    • Pandemics/prevention & control
    • Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
    • SARS-CoV-2
    • COVID-19/epidemiology
    • Vitamin D
    • RNA, Viral
    • Adult
    • Dietary Supplements


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