Coupled thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic intumescent system in cone calorimeter testing

Sungwook Kang, Sengkwan Choi, J. Yoong Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper examines the thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic-based intumescent coating, tested with bench-scale cone calorimetry, in order to promote the understanding of its intumescence and to contribute to the optimisation of its thermal insulation performance. In the test, the specimen underwent the following phenomena simultaneously: (i) Thermo-kinetic endothermic water vaporisation; (ii) Formation of micro-scale pores in its internal volume; (iii) Expansion of its volume; and (iv) Variations in thermal boundaries. These simultaneous phenomena cause several changes in internal-external conditions given to the test sample: (i) Loss of mass (water molecules); (ii) Reduction of effective thermal conductivity owing to its porous structure; (iii) Increase in length of the conductive heat transfer path across its expanding volume; (iv) Irradiance intensification and additional heat transfer generation on its moving boundaries, exposed to the heat source and surroundings. This interacting thermo-physical behaviour impedes the heat transfer to the underlying substrate. It is therefore comprehensively explained by finite element analysis, associated with the experimental data obtained from a thermogravimetric analyser, differential scanning calorimetry, electric furnace, and cone calorimeter tests. The numerical predictions agreed with the physical measurements with consistent accuracy, in terms of both histories of substrate temperature and coating-thickness expansion. This combined numerical-experimental approach enables clear interpretation on the process of intumescence, the impediment mechanism of heat transfer, and the critical factors of the material’s behaviour.
LanguageEnglish
Pages207-234
JournalJournal of Fire Sciences
Volume35
Issue number3
Early online date19 Apr 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Apr 2017

Fingerprint

Calorimeters
Cones
Heat transfer
Testing
Coatings
Electric furnaces
Thermal insulation
Calorimetry
Substrates
Vaporization
Water
Differential scanning calorimetry
Thermal conductivity
Finite element method
Molecules
Kinetics
Temperature
Hot Temperature

Keywords

  • Inorganic intumescent coating
  • cone calorimeter
  • finite element analysis

Cite this

@article{a626d009f56940f8a9363dd9e7e5a09f,
title = "Coupled thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic intumescent system in cone calorimeter testing",
abstract = "This paper examines the thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic-based intumescent coating, tested with bench-scale cone calorimetry, in order to promote the understanding of its intumescence and to contribute to the optimisation of its thermal insulation performance. In the test, the specimen underwent the following phenomena simultaneously: (i) Thermo-kinetic endothermic water vaporisation; (ii) Formation of micro-scale pores in its internal volume; (iii) Expansion of its volume; and (iv) Variations in thermal boundaries. These simultaneous phenomena cause several changes in internal-external conditions given to the test sample: (i) Loss of mass (water molecules); (ii) Reduction of effective thermal conductivity owing to its porous structure; (iii) Increase in length of the conductive heat transfer path across its expanding volume; (iv) Irradiance intensification and additional heat transfer generation on its moving boundaries, exposed to the heat source and surroundings. This interacting thermo-physical behaviour impedes the heat transfer to the underlying substrate. It is therefore comprehensively explained by finite element analysis, associated with the experimental data obtained from a thermogravimetric analyser, differential scanning calorimetry, electric furnace, and cone calorimeter tests. The numerical predictions agreed with the physical measurements with consistent accuracy, in terms of both histories of substrate temperature and coating-thickness expansion. This combined numerical-experimental approach enables clear interpretation on the process of intumescence, the impediment mechanism of heat transfer, and the critical factors of the material’s behaviour.",
keywords = "Inorganic intumescent coating, cone calorimeter, finite element analysis",
author = "Sungwook Kang and Sengkwan Choi and Choi, {J. Yoong}",
note = "Reference text: 1. SteelConstruction.info. Steel Insight 2 – Cost planning through design stages, www.steelconstruction.info/uploads/ftpin/Steel_Insight2/?pdfPath=Steel_Insight2#/1/ (2012, accessed 15 September 2016). 2. Bourbigot S, Duquesne S. Intumescence-based fire retardants. In: Wilkie CA, Morgan AB, Fire retardancy of polymeric materials. 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press, 2010, pp.129-162. 3. Vandersall HL. Intumescent coating systems, their development and chemistry. Journal of Fire and Flammability 1971; 2: 97-140. 4. Weil ED. Fire-protective and flame-retardant coatings – A State-of-the-Art review. Journal of Fire Sciences 2011; 29: 259-296. 5. Mariappan T. Recent developments of intumescent fire protection coatings for structural steel: A review. Journal of Fire Sciences 2016; 34(2): 120-163. 6. BS 476-15 (ISO 5660-1). Fire tests on building materials and structures — Part 15: Method for measuring the rate of heat release of products. 7. Schartel B, Bartholmai M, Hull TR. Some comments on the use of cone calorimeter data. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2005; 88: 540-547. 8. Schartel B, Hull TR. Development of fire-retarded materials – Interpretation of cone calorimeter data. Fire and Materials 2007; 31: 327-354. 9. Choi JY, Jang HM, Chun C. Thermal characteristics measurements of an inorganic intumescent coating system. In: International Conference Applications of Structural Fire Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic, 19-20 February 2009, pp.128–133. 10. Bulewicz EM, Pelc A, Koziowski R. Intumescent silicate-based materials: Mechanism of swelling in contact with fire. Fire and Materials 1985; 9(4): 171-175. 11. P{\'e}l{\'e}gris C, Rivenet M, Traisnel M. Intumescent silicates: Synthesis, characterisation and fire protective effect. In: le Bras M, Bourbigot S, Duquesne S, Jama C, Wilkie CA, Fire Retardancy of Polymers: New Applications of Mineral Fillers. 1st ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2005, pp.68-78. 12. Clark KL, Shimizu AB, Suchsland KE, Moyer CB. Analytical modelling of intumescent coating thermal protection system in a JP-5 fuel fire environment. Report no. N74-29016, Aerotherm Corp., June 1974. 13. Cagliostro DE, Riccitiello SR. Intumescent coating modelling. Journal of Fire and Flammability 1975; 6: 205-221. 14. Anderson CE, Dziuk J, Mallow WA, Buckmaster J. Intumescent reaction mechanisms. Journal of Fire Sciences 1985; 3: 161-194. 15. Buckmaster J, Anderson CE, Nachman A. A model for intumescent paints. International Journal of Engineering Science 1986; 24(3): 263-276. 16. Shih YC, Cheung FB, Koo JH. Theoretical modelling of intumescent fire-retardant materials. Journal of Fire Sciences 1998; 16: 46-71. 17. Blasi CD, Branca C. Mathematical model for the nonsteady decomposition of intumescent coatings. AIChE Journal 2001; 47(10): 2359-2370. 18. Blasi C.D. Modelling the effects of high radiative heat fluxes on intumescent material decomposition. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2004; 71: 721-737. 19. Bhargava A, Griffin GJ. A two dimensional model of heat transfer across a fire retardant epoxy coating subjected to an impinging flame. Journal of Fire Sciences 1999; 17(3): 188-208. 20. Bhargava A, Griffin GJ. A model of heat transfer across an epoxy based fire retardant layer undergoing sublimation, intumescence and degradation. Developments in chemical engineering and mineral processing 2000; 8: 75-91. 21. Griffin GJ. The modelling of heat transfer across intumescent polymer coatings. Journal of Fire Sciences 2010; 28(3): 249-277. 22. Staggs JEJ. Thermal conductivity estimates of intumescent chars by direct numerical simulation. Fire Safety Journal 2010; 45: 228-237. 23. Staggs JEJ, Crewe RJ, Butler R. A theoretical and experimental investigation of intumescent behaviour in protective coatings for structural steel. Chemical Engineering Science 2012; 71: 239-251. 24. Mamleev VSh, Bekturov EA, Gibov KM. Dynamics of intumescence of fire-retardant polymeric materials. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 1988; 70: 1523-1542. 25. Wang YC, G{\"o}ransson U, Holmstedt G, Omrane A. A model for prediction of temperature in steel structure protected by intumescent coating, based on tests in the cone calorimeter. In: International Symposium Fire Safety Science, Beijing, China, 18-23 September 2005, pp.235-246. 26. Yuan JF, Wang YC. Efficient modelling of temperatures in steel plates protected by intumescent coating in fire. In: Hull TR, Kandola BK, Fire Retardancy of Polymers: New Strategies and Mechanisms. 1st ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009, pp.225-239. 27. Zhang Y, Wang YC, Bailey CG, Taylor AP. Global modelling of fire protection performance of intumescent coating under different cone calorimeter heating conditions. Fire Safety Journal 2012; 50: 51-62. 28. Russell HW. Principles of heat flow in porous insulators. Journal of American Ceramic Society 1935; 18 (1-12): 1-5. 29. Staggs JEJ. Heat and mass transport in developing chars. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2003; 82: 297-307. 30. Staggs JEJ. Numerical characterisation of the thermal performance of static porous insulation layers on steel substrates in furnace tests. Journal of Fire Sciences 2011; 29: 177-192. 31. Bakker K. Using the finite element method to compute the influence of complex porosity and inclusion structures on the thermal and electrical conductivity. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 1997; 40(15): 3503-3511. 32. Druma AM, Alam MK, Druma C. Analysis of thermal conduction in carbon foams. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 2004; 43: 689-695. 33. Chapra SC, Canale RP. Numerical methods for engineers. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill International Edition, 2010. 34. Kang SW, Choi SK, Choi JY. Numerical prediction on interacting thermal-structural behaviour of inorganic intumescent coating. In: International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam), Nr Windsor, UK, 4-6 July 2016, pp.213-224. 35. Kang SW, Choi SK, Choi JY. View factor in cone calorimeter testing. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2016; 93: 217-227. 36. Kang SW, Numerical prediction of interacting thermal-structural behaviour of inorganic intumescent system: Part 1 – Heat transfer through porous structures (Chapter 5). In: Thermal-structural behaviour of inorganic intumescent system. PhD Thesis, Ulster University, 2016, pp.100-161. 37. Siegel R, Howell JR. Thermal radiation heat transfer. 4th ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002. 38. Abaqus analysis user’s manual. Fully coupled thermal-stress analysis (6.5.3). In: Abaqus 6.13 Documentation. 39. Cook RD, Malkus DS, Plesha ME, and Witt RJ. Heat transfer and selected fluid problems. In: Concepts and applications of Finite Element Analysis. 4th ed. the United State: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002, pp.454. 40. Dassault Syst{\`e}mes Simulia. Heat transfer and thermal-stress analysis with Abaqus, 2010.",
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language = "English",
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}

Coupled thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic intumescent system in cone calorimeter testing. / Kang, Sungwook; Choi, Sengkwan; Choi, J. Yoong.

In: Journal of Fire Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 3, 19.04.2017, p. 207-234.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coupled thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic intumescent system in cone calorimeter testing

AU - Kang, Sungwook

AU - Choi, Sengkwan

AU - Choi, J. Yoong

N1 - Reference text: 1. SteelConstruction.info. Steel Insight 2 – Cost planning through design stages, www.steelconstruction.info/uploads/ftpin/Steel_Insight2/?pdfPath=Steel_Insight2#/1/ (2012, accessed 15 September 2016). 2. Bourbigot S, Duquesne S. Intumescence-based fire retardants. In: Wilkie CA, Morgan AB, Fire retardancy of polymeric materials. 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press, 2010, pp.129-162. 3. Vandersall HL. Intumescent coating systems, their development and chemistry. Journal of Fire and Flammability 1971; 2: 97-140. 4. Weil ED. Fire-protective and flame-retardant coatings – A State-of-the-Art review. Journal of Fire Sciences 2011; 29: 259-296. 5. Mariappan T. Recent developments of intumescent fire protection coatings for structural steel: A review. Journal of Fire Sciences 2016; 34(2): 120-163. 6. BS 476-15 (ISO 5660-1). Fire tests on building materials and structures — Part 15: Method for measuring the rate of heat release of products. 7. Schartel B, Bartholmai M, Hull TR. Some comments on the use of cone calorimeter data. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2005; 88: 540-547. 8. Schartel B, Hull TR. Development of fire-retarded materials – Interpretation of cone calorimeter data. Fire and Materials 2007; 31: 327-354. 9. Choi JY, Jang HM, Chun C. Thermal characteristics measurements of an inorganic intumescent coating system. In: International Conference Applications of Structural Fire Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic, 19-20 February 2009, pp.128–133. 10. Bulewicz EM, Pelc A, Koziowski R. Intumescent silicate-based materials: Mechanism of swelling in contact with fire. Fire and Materials 1985; 9(4): 171-175. 11. Pélégris C, Rivenet M, Traisnel M. Intumescent silicates: Synthesis, characterisation and fire protective effect. In: le Bras M, Bourbigot S, Duquesne S, Jama C, Wilkie CA, Fire Retardancy of Polymers: New Applications of Mineral Fillers. 1st ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2005, pp.68-78. 12. Clark KL, Shimizu AB, Suchsland KE, Moyer CB. Analytical modelling of intumescent coating thermal protection system in a JP-5 fuel fire environment. Report no. N74-29016, Aerotherm Corp., June 1974. 13. Cagliostro DE, Riccitiello SR. Intumescent coating modelling. Journal of Fire and Flammability 1975; 6: 205-221. 14. Anderson CE, Dziuk J, Mallow WA, Buckmaster J. Intumescent reaction mechanisms. Journal of Fire Sciences 1985; 3: 161-194. 15. Buckmaster J, Anderson CE, Nachman A. A model for intumescent paints. International Journal of Engineering Science 1986; 24(3): 263-276. 16. Shih YC, Cheung FB, Koo JH. Theoretical modelling of intumescent fire-retardant materials. Journal of Fire Sciences 1998; 16: 46-71. 17. Blasi CD, Branca C. Mathematical model for the nonsteady decomposition of intumescent coatings. AIChE Journal 2001; 47(10): 2359-2370. 18. Blasi C.D. Modelling the effects of high radiative heat fluxes on intumescent material decomposition. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2004; 71: 721-737. 19. Bhargava A, Griffin GJ. A two dimensional model of heat transfer across a fire retardant epoxy coating subjected to an impinging flame. Journal of Fire Sciences 1999; 17(3): 188-208. 20. Bhargava A, Griffin GJ. A model of heat transfer across an epoxy based fire retardant layer undergoing sublimation, intumescence and degradation. Developments in chemical engineering and mineral processing 2000; 8: 75-91. 21. Griffin GJ. The modelling of heat transfer across intumescent polymer coatings. Journal of Fire Sciences 2010; 28(3): 249-277. 22. Staggs JEJ. Thermal conductivity estimates of intumescent chars by direct numerical simulation. Fire Safety Journal 2010; 45: 228-237. 23. Staggs JEJ, Crewe RJ, Butler R. A theoretical and experimental investigation of intumescent behaviour in protective coatings for structural steel. Chemical Engineering Science 2012; 71: 239-251. 24. Mamleev VSh, Bekturov EA, Gibov KM. Dynamics of intumescence of fire-retardant polymeric materials. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 1988; 70: 1523-1542. 25. Wang YC, Göransson U, Holmstedt G, Omrane A. A model for prediction of temperature in steel structure protected by intumescent coating, based on tests in the cone calorimeter. In: International Symposium Fire Safety Science, Beijing, China, 18-23 September 2005, pp.235-246. 26. Yuan JF, Wang YC. Efficient modelling of temperatures in steel plates protected by intumescent coating in fire. In: Hull TR, Kandola BK, Fire Retardancy of Polymers: New Strategies and Mechanisms. 1st ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009, pp.225-239. 27. Zhang Y, Wang YC, Bailey CG, Taylor AP. Global modelling of fire protection performance of intumescent coating under different cone calorimeter heating conditions. Fire Safety Journal 2012; 50: 51-62. 28. Russell HW. Principles of heat flow in porous insulators. Journal of American Ceramic Society 1935; 18 (1-12): 1-5. 29. Staggs JEJ. Heat and mass transport in developing chars. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2003; 82: 297-307. 30. Staggs JEJ. Numerical characterisation of the thermal performance of static porous insulation layers on steel substrates in furnace tests. Journal of Fire Sciences 2011; 29: 177-192. 31. Bakker K. Using the finite element method to compute the influence of complex porosity and inclusion structures on the thermal and electrical conductivity. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 1997; 40(15): 3503-3511. 32. Druma AM, Alam MK, Druma C. Analysis of thermal conduction in carbon foams. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 2004; 43: 689-695. 33. Chapra SC, Canale RP. Numerical methods for engineers. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill International Edition, 2010. 34. Kang SW, Choi SK, Choi JY. Numerical prediction on interacting thermal-structural behaviour of inorganic intumescent coating. In: International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam), Nr Windsor, UK, 4-6 July 2016, pp.213-224. 35. Kang SW, Choi SK, Choi JY. View factor in cone calorimeter testing. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2016; 93: 217-227. 36. Kang SW, Numerical prediction of interacting thermal-structural behaviour of inorganic intumescent system: Part 1 – Heat transfer through porous structures (Chapter 5). In: Thermal-structural behaviour of inorganic intumescent system. PhD Thesis, Ulster University, 2016, pp.100-161. 37. Siegel R, Howell JR. Thermal radiation heat transfer. 4th ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002. 38. Abaqus analysis user’s manual. Fully coupled thermal-stress analysis (6.5.3). In: Abaqus 6.13 Documentation. 39. Cook RD, Malkus DS, Plesha ME, and Witt RJ. Heat transfer and selected fluid problems. In: Concepts and applications of Finite Element Analysis. 4th ed. the United State: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002, pp.454. 40. Dassault Systèmes Simulia. Heat transfer and thermal-stress analysis with Abaqus, 2010.

PY - 2017/4/19

Y1 - 2017/4/19

N2 - This paper examines the thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic-based intumescent coating, tested with bench-scale cone calorimetry, in order to promote the understanding of its intumescence and to contribute to the optimisation of its thermal insulation performance. In the test, the specimen underwent the following phenomena simultaneously: (i) Thermo-kinetic endothermic water vaporisation; (ii) Formation of micro-scale pores in its internal volume; (iii) Expansion of its volume; and (iv) Variations in thermal boundaries. These simultaneous phenomena cause several changes in internal-external conditions given to the test sample: (i) Loss of mass (water molecules); (ii) Reduction of effective thermal conductivity owing to its porous structure; (iii) Increase in length of the conductive heat transfer path across its expanding volume; (iv) Irradiance intensification and additional heat transfer generation on its moving boundaries, exposed to the heat source and surroundings. This interacting thermo-physical behaviour impedes the heat transfer to the underlying substrate. It is therefore comprehensively explained by finite element analysis, associated with the experimental data obtained from a thermogravimetric analyser, differential scanning calorimetry, electric furnace, and cone calorimeter tests. The numerical predictions agreed with the physical measurements with consistent accuracy, in terms of both histories of substrate temperature and coating-thickness expansion. This combined numerical-experimental approach enables clear interpretation on the process of intumescence, the impediment mechanism of heat transfer, and the critical factors of the material’s behaviour.

AB - This paper examines the thermo-physical behaviour of an inorganic-based intumescent coating, tested with bench-scale cone calorimetry, in order to promote the understanding of its intumescence and to contribute to the optimisation of its thermal insulation performance. In the test, the specimen underwent the following phenomena simultaneously: (i) Thermo-kinetic endothermic water vaporisation; (ii) Formation of micro-scale pores in its internal volume; (iii) Expansion of its volume; and (iv) Variations in thermal boundaries. These simultaneous phenomena cause several changes in internal-external conditions given to the test sample: (i) Loss of mass (water molecules); (ii) Reduction of effective thermal conductivity owing to its porous structure; (iii) Increase in length of the conductive heat transfer path across its expanding volume; (iv) Irradiance intensification and additional heat transfer generation on its moving boundaries, exposed to the heat source and surroundings. This interacting thermo-physical behaviour impedes the heat transfer to the underlying substrate. It is therefore comprehensively explained by finite element analysis, associated with the experimental data obtained from a thermogravimetric analyser, differential scanning calorimetry, electric furnace, and cone calorimeter tests. The numerical predictions agreed with the physical measurements with consistent accuracy, in terms of both histories of substrate temperature and coating-thickness expansion. This combined numerical-experimental approach enables clear interpretation on the process of intumescence, the impediment mechanism of heat transfer, and the critical factors of the material’s behaviour.

KW - Inorganic intumescent coating

KW - cone calorimeter

KW - finite element analysis

U2 - 10.1177/0734904117701765

DO - 10.1177/0734904117701765

M3 - Article

VL - 35

SP - 207

EP - 234

JO - Journal of Fire Sciences

T2 - Journal of Fire Sciences

JF - Journal of Fire Sciences

SN - 0734-9041

IS - 3

ER -