Correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression and mental wellbeing associated with COVID-19: a cross-sectional study of UK-based respondents

Lee Smith, Louis Jacob, Anita Yakkundi, Daragh McDermott, Nicola Armstrong, Yvonne Barnett, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez, Suzanne Martin, Laurie Butler, Mark A Tully

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263 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: The aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 self-isolation/social distancing on mental health, and potential correlates, among a sample of the UK population.Methods: A cross-sectional study. Mental health was measured using the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory. Mental wellbeing was measured using The Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Data collected on predictors included sex, age, marital status, employment, annual income, region, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical multimorbidity, any physical symptoms experienced during self-isolation/social distancing, and the number of days of self-isolation/social distancing. The association between potential predictors and poor mental health was studied using a multivariable logistic regression.Results: 932 participants were included. Factors associated with poor mental health were sex (reference: male; female: OR=1.89, 95%CI=1.34-2.68), age (18-24 years: reference;45-54 years: OR=0.27, 95%CI=0.14-0.53; 55-64 years: OR=0.24, 95%CI=0.12-0.47; 65-74years: OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.05-0.22; and ≥75years: OR=0.08,95% CI=0.03-0.24),annual income (<£15,000: reference; £25,000-<£40,000: OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.31-0.93; £40,000-<£60,000: OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.22-0.69; and ≥£60,000: OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.21-0.67), current smoking (yes: OR=2.59, 95%CI=1.62-4.20), and physical multimorbidity (OR=2.35, 95%CI=1.61-3.46).Conclusions: In this sample of UK adults self-isolating/social distancing females, younger age groups, those with a lower annual income, current smokers and those with physical multimorbidity were associated with higher levels of poor mental health.
Original languageEnglish
Article number113138
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalPsychiatry research
Early online date29 May 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Sept 2020


  • COVID-19
  • Self-isolation
  • Mental Health
  • Anxiety
  • Depression


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