Stability and nutrient release from model water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions based on kerosene oil, Span 80 and Tween 20 were studied. Multiple emulsion internal and external droplet sizes were ~1 and 7.5 μm respectively. The initial encapsulation yield was 92–98%. The apparent yield stability decreased to 85–87% after heating at 80°C for 20 min. The release of a nutrient, L-tryptophan (L-Trp) or riboflavine-5′-monophosphate (Vitamin B2), from the W/O/W multiple emulsions was found to conform to first order kinetics for studies performed at pH 2–10. The rate of release was generally greater near the isolectric point of L-Trp or Vitamin B2. The permeability coefficient for nutrient release was in the range 0.32–1.92 × 10−10 cm/s. This was 105–106-fold lower than the estimated permeability coefficient for water transfer across a W/O/W multiple emulsion oil phase. Therefore, we conclude that processes of nutrient release and water transfer within a W/O/W multiple emulsion occur via different routes.
Owusu, R., Zhu, Q., & Dickinson, E. (1992). Controlled release of L-tryptophan and Vitamin B2 from model water/oil/water multiple emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 6(5), 443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80030-1