Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The importance of education to human development is emphasised by its central place in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and reflected in the global initiative Education for All (EFA) aimed at securing primary education for all children by the year 2015. There are many impediments to the achievement of universal primary education. These include lack of priority to education on the part of national governments such as, insufficient spending as a percentage of GNP or inequitable distribution of funding and resources. Significant barriers to education, particularly within low income countries, include poverty, child labour, distance from school, unequal access due to gender or cultural factors and the existence of conflict. Although the number of out-of-school primary-age children in the world has fallen in recent years, there has been little improvement in conflict affected countries. These countries are home to half of all children out of school (currently 28.5 million out of 57 million children), yet they receive less than one-fifth of education aid. This paper draws on research for the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report to highlight a number of significant challenges for education in these countries and the contribution that education might make to longer term peacebuilding.
LanguageEnglish
Pages113-125
JournalJournal of International and Comparative Education
Volume3
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014

Fingerprint

education
primary education
child labor
educational opportunity
cultural factors
school
primary school
low income
funding
poverty
monitoring
lack
gender
resources

Keywords

  • Education for All
  • Conflict
  • Peacebuilding

Cite this

@article{cb295535330b4f5db968c7414977d6e1,
title = "Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries",
abstract = "The importance of education to human development is emphasised by its central place in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and reflected in the global initiative Education for All (EFA) aimed at securing primary education for all children by the year 2015. There are many impediments to the achievement of universal primary education. These include lack of priority to education on the part of national governments such as, insufficient spending as a percentage of GNP or inequitable distribution of funding and resources. Significant barriers to education, particularly within low income countries, include poverty, child labour, distance from school, unequal access due to gender or cultural factors and the existence of conflict. Although the number of out-of-school primary-age children in the world has fallen in recent years, there has been little improvement in conflict affected countries. These countries are home to half of all children out of school (currently 28.5 million out of 57 million children), yet they receive less than one-fifth of education aid. This paper draws on research for the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report to highlight a number of significant challenges for education in these countries and the contribution that education might make to longer term peacebuilding.",
keywords = "Education for All, Conflict, Peacebuilding",
author = "Alan Smith",
note = "Reference text: Amara, M., Azaiza, F., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., and Mor-Sommerfeld, A.. (2009). A New Bilingual Education in the Conflict-Ridden Israeli Reality. Language and Education, 23 (1), pp.15–35. Aragon, J. & Vegas, M. (2009). Governance Evidence in Peru: production and use in the education sector. UNDP: Oslo Governance Centre, Discussion Paper 19. Barakat, B.F. & Urdal, H. (2009). Breaking the Waves? Does education mediate the relationship between youth bulges and political violence? Washington DC: World Bank. Ben-Porath, S.R. (2006). Citizenship under Fire. Democratic Education in Times of Conflict. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 1 123 Bender, P., Dutcher, N., Klaus, D., Shore, J. & Tesar, C. (2005). In Their Own Language: education for all. Education Notes Series. Washington DC: The World Bank. Billquist, D.L. & Colbert, J.M. (2006). Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy. Monteray, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Brock, C. & McCorriston, M. (2008). Towards the Concept of Education as a Humanitarian Response in the Context of a UNESCO Chair/UNITWIN Context, Paris: UNESCO. Buckland, P. (2005) Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Dividing and uniting: the use of citizenship discourses in conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda. Global Society, 20(1), pp.101-113. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2009). ‘Nation, Narration, Unification? The Politics of History Teaching After the Rwandan Genocide’. Journal of Genocide Research, 11(1), pp.31-53. Bush, K., & Salterelli, D. (Eds.) (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Carri{\'o}n, J. (Ed.) (2006). The Fujimori Legacy: the rise of electoral authoritarianism in Peru. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. Cole, E.A. (2007). Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Dwyer, A.M. (2005). Policy Studies 15. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse. Washington DC: East-West Center. Gallagher, T. (2010). Key Issues in Coexistence and Education. Coexistence International Brandeis University. Available at http://www.clubmadrid.org/img/secciones/CI_Key_Issues_in_Coexistence_Education_Jan_2010.pdf [Retrieved on 18 March 2014]. Global Monitoring Report (2011). The Hidden Crisis: armed conflict and education. Paris: UNESCO. Grace, G. (2003). Educational Studies and Faith-Based Schooling: moving from prejudice to evidence- based argument. British Journal of Educational Studies. 51(2), pp.149-167. Grare, F. (2007). The Evolution of Sectarian Conflicts in Pakistan and the Ever-Changing Face of Islamic Violence. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 30(1), pp.127-143. Greeley, A. (1998). Catholic schools at the crossroads: an American perspective. In J. M. Feheney (Ed.) From Ideal to Action: The Inner Nature of a Catholic School Today. Dublin: Veritas. pp. 168-178. Gulalp, Haldun (2006). Citizenship and Ethnic Conflict: challenging the nation-state. Routledge: Research in Comparative Politics. Hasan, K. (2005). Madrassa enrolment data in Pakistan is ‘highly exaggerated’. Available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_2-3-2005_pg7_52. [Retrieved on 14 March 2014] H{\"o}pken, W. (2003). Textbooks and Conflicts. Experiences from the Work of the Georg-Eckert-Institute for International Textbook Research. Washington DC: World Bank Workshop. Ichilov, Orit (2004). Political Learning and Citizenship Education under Conflict: the political socialization of Israeli and Palestinian youngsters. Abingdon: Routledge International Crisis Group (2004). Unfulfilled Promises: Pakistan’s Failure to Tackle Extremism. Asia Report, No. 73. Available at http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-asia/pakistan/073-unfulfilled-promises-pakistans-failure-to-tackle-extremism.aspx [retrieved 18 March 2014]. INEE. (2010). Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery. New York: Inter‐ Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. Kosonen, K. & C. Young (2009). Mother Tongue as Bridge Language of Instruction: policies and experiences in Southeast Asia. Bangkok: SEAMEO. Lawton, D. (2005). Faith schools: Consensus or conflict? London: RoutledgeFalmer. Lockheed, M. E & Lewis, M. A., (2007). Inexcusable Absence: why 60 million girls still aren’t in school and what to do about it. Washington DC: Center for Global Development. Marques, J. & Bannon, I. (2003). Central America: Education Reform in a Post-Conflict Setting, Opportunities and Challenges. Social Development Department Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Working Paper No. 4. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Novelli, Mario (2011). Are we all soldiers now? The Dangers of the Securitization of Education and Conflict. In Mundy, K. and Dryden-Petersen, S. (eds.) Educating children in conflict zones: research, policy, and practice for systemic change: a tribute to Jackie Kirk. International Perspectives on Education Reform Series. Teachers New York: College Press, pp. 49-66. Oglesby, E. (2007). Historical Memory and the Limits of Peace Education: examining Guatamala memory of silence and the politics of curriculum design. In E.A. Cole (Ed.) (2007). Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, pp. 175-204. O’Malley, B. (2010). Education Under Attack, Paris: UNESCO. Available at http://www.unesco.org.uk/education_under_attack:_unesco_launches_new_report [Retrieved on 10 March 2014] OSCE (2007). School Catchment Areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Status Report by the OSCE Mission to BiH, Oct 2007. BiH: OSCE Paulson, J. (2006). The Educational Recommendations of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: potential and practice in Sierra Leone. Research in Comparative and International Education, 1(4), pp.335-350. Paulson, J. (2010). Truth Commissions and National Curriculum: The case of the Record{\'a}ndonos resource in Peru. In S. Parmar, M.J. Roseman, S. Siegrist, & T. Sowa, (Eds.) Children and Transitional Justice. Truth-Telling, Accountability and Reconciliation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 327-364. R{\"o}sel, J. (2009). Mass-education in a Vast, in a Dangerous and a Fragmented State – education policy in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Paper presented at Conference on Education in Fragile Contexts, Arnold- Bergstraesser-Institut, Freiburg, Germany, September 2009. Shabad, G. and Gunther, R. (1982). Language, Nationalism, and Political Conflict in Spain. Comparative Politics, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Jul., 1982), pp. 443-477. Short, G. (2002). Faith-Based Schools: a threat to social cohesion? Journal of Philosophy of Education. 36(4), pp. 559-572. Smith, A. (2003) Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland: beyond national identity? Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(1), pp. 15-31. Smith, A. & Vaux, T. (2003). Education, Conflict, and International Development. London: Department of International Development. Spink, J. (2005). Education and politics in Afghanistan: the importance of an education system in peacebuilding and reconstruction. Journal of Peace Education, 2(2), pp.195–207. Stewart, F. (2000). Crisis Prevention: tackling horizontal inequalities. Oxford Development Studies, 28 (3), pp. 245-262 Tawil, S. & Harley, A. (Eds.) (2004). Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion. Geneva: UNESCO IBE. Thyne, C.L. (2006). ABC’s, 123’s, and the Golden Rule: the pacifying effect of education on civil war, 1980–1999. International Studies Quarterly, 50, pp.733-754. UNESCO (2003). Education in a Multilingual World. UNESCO Education Position Paper. Paris: UNESCO. UNICEF (2008). Divided Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo: UNICEF. United Nations (1948). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: United Nations General Assembly. United Nations (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York: United Nations, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. United Nations Commission on Human Rights Report (1995) Implementation of the declaration on the eliminations of all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religion or belief, article 66 (E/CN.4/1996/95) United Nations (2007). Report of Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education: Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina (24 September- 2 October 2007). Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/484d1c142.html [Retrieved on 11 February 2014] United Nations (2009). Report of the Secretary-General on Peacebuilding in the Immediate Aftermath of Conflict. New York: United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. United Nations (2010). Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. Wickrema. A. & Colenso, P. (2003). Respect for Diversity in Educational Publication. The Sri Lankan Experience. Washington DC: World Bank Workshop. World Bank (2005). ‘In Their Own Language...Education for All’. Education Notes 38906. Washington, DC: The World Bank.",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "113--125",
journal = "Journal of International and Comparative Education",
issn = "2232-1802",
number = "1",

}

Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries. / Smith, Alan.

In: Journal of International and Comparative Education, Vol. 3, No. 1, 03.2014, p. 113-125.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries

AU - Smith, Alan

N1 - Reference text: Amara, M., Azaiza, F., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., and Mor-Sommerfeld, A.. (2009). A New Bilingual Education in the Conflict-Ridden Israeli Reality. Language and Education, 23 (1), pp.15–35. Aragon, J. & Vegas, M. (2009). Governance Evidence in Peru: production and use in the education sector. UNDP: Oslo Governance Centre, Discussion Paper 19. Barakat, B.F. & Urdal, H. (2009). Breaking the Waves? Does education mediate the relationship between youth bulges and political violence? Washington DC: World Bank. Ben-Porath, S.R. (2006). Citizenship under Fire. Democratic Education in Times of Conflict. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 1 123 Bender, P., Dutcher, N., Klaus, D., Shore, J. & Tesar, C. (2005). In Their Own Language: education for all. Education Notes Series. Washington DC: The World Bank. Billquist, D.L. & Colbert, J.M. (2006). Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy. Monteray, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Brock, C. & McCorriston, M. (2008). Towards the Concept of Education as a Humanitarian Response in the Context of a UNESCO Chair/UNITWIN Context, Paris: UNESCO. Buckland, P. (2005) Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Dividing and uniting: the use of citizenship discourses in conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda. Global Society, 20(1), pp.101-113. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2009). ‘Nation, Narration, Unification? The Politics of History Teaching After the Rwandan Genocide’. Journal of Genocide Research, 11(1), pp.31-53. Bush, K., & Salterelli, D. (Eds.) (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Carrión, J. (Ed.) (2006). The Fujimori Legacy: the rise of electoral authoritarianism in Peru. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. Cole, E.A. (2007). Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Dwyer, A.M. (2005). Policy Studies 15. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse. Washington DC: East-West Center. Gallagher, T. (2010). Key Issues in Coexistence and Education. Coexistence International Brandeis University. Available at http://www.clubmadrid.org/img/secciones/CI_Key_Issues_in_Coexistence_Education_Jan_2010.pdf [Retrieved on 18 March 2014]. Global Monitoring Report (2011). The Hidden Crisis: armed conflict and education. Paris: UNESCO. Grace, G. (2003). Educational Studies and Faith-Based Schooling: moving from prejudice to evidence- based argument. British Journal of Educational Studies. 51(2), pp.149-167. Grare, F. (2007). The Evolution of Sectarian Conflicts in Pakistan and the Ever-Changing Face of Islamic Violence. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 30(1), pp.127-143. Greeley, A. (1998). Catholic schools at the crossroads: an American perspective. In J. M. Feheney (Ed.) From Ideal to Action: The Inner Nature of a Catholic School Today. Dublin: Veritas. pp. 168-178. Gulalp, Haldun (2006). Citizenship and Ethnic Conflict: challenging the nation-state. Routledge: Research in Comparative Politics. Hasan, K. (2005). Madrassa enrolment data in Pakistan is ‘highly exaggerated’. Available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_2-3-2005_pg7_52. [Retrieved on 14 March 2014] Höpken, W. (2003). Textbooks and Conflicts. Experiences from the Work of the Georg-Eckert-Institute for International Textbook Research. Washington DC: World Bank Workshop. Ichilov, Orit (2004). Political Learning and Citizenship Education under Conflict: the political socialization of Israeli and Palestinian youngsters. Abingdon: Routledge International Crisis Group (2004). Unfulfilled Promises: Pakistan’s Failure to Tackle Extremism. Asia Report, No. 73. Available at http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-asia/pakistan/073-unfulfilled-promises-pakistans-failure-to-tackle-extremism.aspx [retrieved 18 March 2014]. INEE. (2010). Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery. New York: Inter‐ Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. Kosonen, K. & C. Young (2009). Mother Tongue as Bridge Language of Instruction: policies and experiences in Southeast Asia. Bangkok: SEAMEO. Lawton, D. (2005). Faith schools: Consensus or conflict? London: RoutledgeFalmer. Lockheed, M. E & Lewis, M. A., (2007). Inexcusable Absence: why 60 million girls still aren’t in school and what to do about it. Washington DC: Center for Global Development. Marques, J. & Bannon, I. (2003). Central America: Education Reform in a Post-Conflict Setting, Opportunities and Challenges. Social Development Department Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Working Paper No. 4. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Novelli, Mario (2011). Are we all soldiers now? The Dangers of the Securitization of Education and Conflict. In Mundy, K. and Dryden-Petersen, S. (eds.) Educating children in conflict zones: research, policy, and practice for systemic change: a tribute to Jackie Kirk. International Perspectives on Education Reform Series. Teachers New York: College Press, pp. 49-66. Oglesby, E. (2007). Historical Memory and the Limits of Peace Education: examining Guatamala memory of silence and the politics of curriculum design. In E.A. Cole (Ed.) (2007). Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, pp. 175-204. O’Malley, B. (2010). Education Under Attack, Paris: UNESCO. Available at http://www.unesco.org.uk/education_under_attack:_unesco_launches_new_report [Retrieved on 10 March 2014] OSCE (2007). School Catchment Areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Status Report by the OSCE Mission to BiH, Oct 2007. BiH: OSCE Paulson, J. (2006). The Educational Recommendations of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: potential and practice in Sierra Leone. Research in Comparative and International Education, 1(4), pp.335-350. Paulson, J. (2010). Truth Commissions and National Curriculum: The case of the Recordándonos resource in Peru. In S. Parmar, M.J. Roseman, S. Siegrist, & T. Sowa, (Eds.) Children and Transitional Justice. Truth-Telling, Accountability and Reconciliation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 327-364. Rösel, J. (2009). Mass-education in a Vast, in a Dangerous and a Fragmented State – education policy in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Paper presented at Conference on Education in Fragile Contexts, Arnold- Bergstraesser-Institut, Freiburg, Germany, September 2009. Shabad, G. and Gunther, R. (1982). Language, Nationalism, and Political Conflict in Spain. Comparative Politics, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Jul., 1982), pp. 443-477. Short, G. (2002). Faith-Based Schools: a threat to social cohesion? Journal of Philosophy of Education. 36(4), pp. 559-572. Smith, A. (2003) Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland: beyond national identity? Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(1), pp. 15-31. Smith, A. & Vaux, T. (2003). Education, Conflict, and International Development. London: Department of International Development. Spink, J. (2005). Education and politics in Afghanistan: the importance of an education system in peacebuilding and reconstruction. Journal of Peace Education, 2(2), pp.195–207. Stewart, F. (2000). Crisis Prevention: tackling horizontal inequalities. Oxford Development Studies, 28 (3), pp. 245-262 Tawil, S. & Harley, A. (Eds.) (2004). Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion. Geneva: UNESCO IBE. Thyne, C.L. (2006). ABC’s, 123’s, and the Golden Rule: the pacifying effect of education on civil war, 1980–1999. International Studies Quarterly, 50, pp.733-754. UNESCO (2003). Education in a Multilingual World. UNESCO Education Position Paper. Paris: UNESCO. UNICEF (2008). Divided Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo: UNICEF. United Nations (1948). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: United Nations General Assembly. United Nations (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York: United Nations, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. United Nations Commission on Human Rights Report (1995) Implementation of the declaration on the eliminations of all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religion or belief, article 66 (E/CN.4/1996/95) United Nations (2007). Report of Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education: Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina (24 September- 2 October 2007). Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/484d1c142.html [Retrieved on 11 February 2014] United Nations (2009). Report of the Secretary-General on Peacebuilding in the Immediate Aftermath of Conflict. New York: United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. United Nations (2010). Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. Wickrema. A. & Colenso, P. (2003). Respect for Diversity in Educational Publication. The Sri Lankan Experience. Washington DC: World Bank Workshop. World Bank (2005). ‘In Their Own Language...Education for All’. Education Notes 38906. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

PY - 2014/3

Y1 - 2014/3

N2 - The importance of education to human development is emphasised by its central place in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and reflected in the global initiative Education for All (EFA) aimed at securing primary education for all children by the year 2015. There are many impediments to the achievement of universal primary education. These include lack of priority to education on the part of national governments such as, insufficient spending as a percentage of GNP or inequitable distribution of funding and resources. Significant barriers to education, particularly within low income countries, include poverty, child labour, distance from school, unequal access due to gender or cultural factors and the existence of conflict. Although the number of out-of-school primary-age children in the world has fallen in recent years, there has been little improvement in conflict affected countries. These countries are home to half of all children out of school (currently 28.5 million out of 57 million children), yet they receive less than one-fifth of education aid. This paper draws on research for the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report to highlight a number of significant challenges for education in these countries and the contribution that education might make to longer term peacebuilding.

AB - The importance of education to human development is emphasised by its central place in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and reflected in the global initiative Education for All (EFA) aimed at securing primary education for all children by the year 2015. There are many impediments to the achievement of universal primary education. These include lack of priority to education on the part of national governments such as, insufficient spending as a percentage of GNP or inequitable distribution of funding and resources. Significant barriers to education, particularly within low income countries, include poverty, child labour, distance from school, unequal access due to gender or cultural factors and the existence of conflict. Although the number of out-of-school primary-age children in the world has fallen in recent years, there has been little improvement in conflict affected countries. These countries are home to half of all children out of school (currently 28.5 million out of 57 million children), yet they receive less than one-fifth of education aid. This paper draws on research for the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report to highlight a number of significant challenges for education in these countries and the contribution that education might make to longer term peacebuilding.

KW - Education for All

KW - Conflict

KW - Peacebuilding

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 113

EP - 125

JO - Journal of International and Comparative Education

T2 - Journal of International and Comparative Education

JF - Journal of International and Comparative Education

SN - 2232-1802

IS - 1

ER -