The concept of social exclusion has attracted considerable interest and debate over the past 20 years. It is a multifaceted concept, which has been delineated in a variety of ways by different theorists. This article explores the main defining features of social exclusion, and proceeds to investigate the extent to which these are manifested in practice, in relation to the lived experiences of young people from deprived interface areas of Belfast. These young people are at the cutting edge of the divisions that have blighted Northern Irelandsociety. This qualitative study used interviews, firstly to ascertain the views of the young people themselves, and, secondly, to gauge the perceptions of community group leaders, training providers and employers who deal closely with them. Marked differences were found between the young people and the adult groups in relation to the social construction of exclusion and its impact on the young people.
|Journal||Youth & Society|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 8 Aug 2011|
Bibliographical noteReference text: Abrams, D., Hogg, M., & Marques, J. (Eds.) (2005). The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Adato, M., Carter, M., & May, J. (2006). Exploring poverty traps and social exclusion in South Africa using qualitative and quantitative data. Journal of Development Studies, 42, 226-247.
Atkinson, T. (1998) Social exclusion, poverty and unemployment. In T. Atkinson & J. Hills (Eds.), Exclusion, employment and opportunity (pp. 1-24). London: LSE. Retrieved September 27, 2008 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/Paper4.PDF
Bailey, N (2006). Does work pay? Employment, poverty and exclusion from social relations. In C. Pantazis, D. Gordon & R. Levitas (Eds.), Poverty and social exclusion in Britain (pp. 163-190). Bristol: The Policy Press.
Böhnke, P. (2008). Are the poor socially integrated? The link between poverty and social support in different welfare regimes. Journal of European Social Policy, 18, 133-150.
Bossert, W., D’Ambrosio, C., & Peragine, V. (2007). Deprivation and social exclusion. Economica, 74, 777-803.
Buchanan, S. (2008). Transforming conflict in Northern Ireland and the border Counties: Some lessons from the peace programmes on valuing participative democracy. Irish Political Studies, 23, 387-409.
Burchardt, T., LeGrand, J., & Piachaud, D. (1999). Social exclusion in Britain. Social Policy and Administration, 33, 227-244.
Burchardt, T., LeGrand, J. & Piachaud, D. (2002a). Introduction. In J. Hills, J. LeGrand & D. Piachaud (Eds.), Understanding social exclusion (pp. 1-12). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burchardt, T., LeGrand, J. & Piachaud, D. (2002b). Degrees of exclusion: Developing a dynamic, multidimensional measure. In J. Hills, J. LeGrand & D. Piachaud (Eds.), Understanding social exclusion (pp. 30-43). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Feldman A. (1991). Formations of violence: The narrative of the body and political terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fergusson, R., Pye, D., Esland G., McLaughlin, J., & Muncie, J. (2000). Normalized dislocation and new subjectivities in post-16 markets for education and work. Critical Social Policy, 20, 283-305.
Gallie, D., Paugam, S., & Jacobs, S. (2003). Unemployment, poverty and social isolation: Is there a vicious circle of social exclusion? European Societies, 5, 1-32.
Haataja, A. (1999). Unemployment, employment and social exclusion, Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No. 195. Retrieved September 27, 2008 from http://www.lisproject.org/publications/LISwps/195.pdf
Hammer, T. (2003). Youth unemployment and social exclusion in Europe. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Hargie, O., & Dickson, D. (Eds.) (2004). Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict. Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream Press.
Hargie, O., Dickson, D., Mallett, J., & Stringer, M. (2008). Communicating social identity: A study of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Communication Research, 35, 792-821.
Higgins, K., & McIlrath, K. (2000). The trouble with peace: The cease-fires and their impact on drug use among youth in Northern Ireland. Youth & Society, 32, 29-59.
Hills, J., LeGrand, J., & Piachaud, D. (Eds.) (2002). Understanding social exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Horgan, G., & Rodgers, P. (2000). Young people's participation in a new Northern Ireland society. Youth & Society, 32, 107-137.
Hughes, J. Campbell, A., Hewstone, M., & Cairns, E. (2007). Segregation in Northern Ireland. Policy Studies, 28, 33-53.
Jarman, N. (2008). Security and segregation: Interface barriers in Belfast. Shared Space, 6, 21-33.
Jones, G. (2005). The thinking and behaviour of young adults (aged 16-25): Literature review for the Social Exclusion Unit. London: Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
Kemp, P. (2005). Young people and unemployment: From welfare to workfare? In M. Barry, (Ed.), Youth policy and social inclusion: Critical debates with young people (pp. 113-130). London: Routledge.
Klasen, S. (2002). Social exclusion and children in OECD countries: some conceptual issues. The School Field, 5, 9-24.
Lee, P., & Murie, A. (1999). Literature review of social exclusion. Edinburgh: Central Research Unit, Scottish Office.
Lenoir, R. (1974). Les exclus. Paris: Seuil.
Levitas, R. (1999). Defining and measuring social exclusion: A critical overview of current proposal. Radical Statistics, 71, Summer, 10-27.
Levitas, R (2006). The concept and measurement of social exclusion. In C. Pantazis, D. Gordon & R. Levitas (Eds.), Poverty and social exclusion in Britain (pp. 123-160). Bristol: The Policy Press.
Martin, R. (1998). Regional dimensions of Europe’s unemployment crisis. In P. Lawless, R. Martin & S. Hardy (Eds.), Unemployment and social exclusion: Landscapes of labour inequality (pp. 11-48). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
McEvoy, S. (2000). Communities and peace: Catholic youth in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Research, 37, 85-103.
Millar, R. & Tracey, A. (2009). The interview approach. In O. Hargie & D. Tourish (Eds.), Auditing organizational communication: A handbook of research, theory and practice (pp. 78-102). London: Routledge.
Muldoon, O., Trew, K., & Kilpatrick, R. (2000). The legacy of the troubles on the young people's psychological and social development and their school life. Youth & Society, 32, 6-28.
O’Mahony, D. (2000). Young people, crime, and criminal justice: Patterns and prospects for the future. Youth & Society, 32, 60-80.
Osborne, B., Smith, A., & Hayes, A. (2006). Higher education in Northern Ireland: A report on factors associated with participation and migration. Jordanstown: Social and Policy Research Institute, University of Ulster.
Palmer, G., Carr, J. & Kenway P. (2004). Monitoring poverty and social exclusion, 2004. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Retrieved September 30, 2009 from http://www.ne-cf.org/core_files/Monitoring%20Poverty%20%20Social%20Exclusion20041.pdf
Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage.
Room, G. (1995). Beyond the threshold: the measurement and analysis of social
exclusion. Bristol: Polity Press.
Shirlow, P. (2003). ‘Who fears to speak’: Fear, mobility, and ethno-sectarianism in the two ‘Ardoynes’. The Global Review of Ethnopolitics, 3, 76-91.
Silver, H. (1994). Social exclusion and social solidarity: Three paradigms. International Labour Review, 133, 531-578.
Silver, H., & Miller, S. (2003). Social exclusion: The European approach to social disadvantage. Indicators, 2, 5-21.
Smith, M., & Hamilton, J. (2004). The human costs of the troubles. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict (pp. 15-36). Edinburgh: Mainstream.
Social Exclusion Unit (2002). Making the connections: Transport and social exclusion. London: UK Government Social Exclusion Unit. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&q=16-24%2C+social+exclusion
Steinert, H. (2007). Participation and social exclusion: A conceptual framework. In H. Steinert & A. Pilgram (Eds.), Welfare Policy from below: Struggles against social exclusion in Europe (pp. 45-60). Aldershot: Ashgate.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Symon, G., & Cassell, C. (1998). Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: A practical guide. London: Sage.
Teague, P., & Wilson, R. (Eds.) (1995). Social exclusion, social inclusion, Report No 2. Belfast: Democratic Dialogue.
Tonge, J. (2002) Northern Ireland: Conflict and change. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.
UK Office for National Statistics (2009). ‘NEETs’ more likely to be from workless homes. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/elmr0409.pdf
United Nations (2007). Literature review on social exclusion in the ESCWA Region. New York. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/sdd-07-WP4-e.pdf
Webster, C., Simpson, D., MacDonald, R., Abbas, A., Cieslik, M., Shildrick T., & Simpson M. (2004) Poor transitions – social exclusion and young adults. Bristol: Policy Press.