Consensus Recommendation for Mouse Models of Ocular Hypertension to Study Aqueous Humor Outflow and Its Mechanisms

Colleen M McDowell, Krishnakumar Kizhatil, Michael H Elliott, Darryl R Overby, Joseph van Batenburg-Sherwood, J Cameron Millar, Markus H Kuehn, Gulab Zode, Ted S Acott, Michael G Anderson, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Jacques A Bertrand, Terete Borras, Diane E Bovenkamp, Lin Cheng, John Danias, Michael Lucio De Ieso, Yiqin Du, Jennifer A Faralli, Rudolf FuchshoferPreethi S Ganapathy, Haiyan Gong, Samuel Herberg, Humberto Hernandez, Peter Humphries, Simon W M John, Paul L Kaufman, Kate E Keller, Mary J Kelley, Ruth A Kelly, David Krizaj, Ajay Kumar, Brian C Leonard, Raquel L Lieberman, Paloma Liton, Yutao Liu, Katy C Liu, Navita N Lopez, Weiming Mao, Timur Mavlyutov, Fiona McDonnell, Gillian J McLellan, Philip Mzyk, Andrews Nartey, Louis R Pasquale, Gaurang C Patel, Padmanabhan P Pattabiraman, Donna M Peters, Vijaykrishna Raghunathan, Colin E Willoughby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
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Due to their similarities in anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology to humans, mice are a valuable model system to study the generation and mechanisms modulating conventional outflow resistance and thus intraocular pressure. In addition, mouse models are critical for understanding the complex nature of conventional outflow homeostasis and dysfunction that results in ocular hypertension. In this review, we describe a set of minimum acceptable standards for developing, characterizing, and utilizing mouse models of open-angle ocular hypertension. We expect that this set of standard practices will increase scientific rigor when using mouse models and will better enable researchers to replicate and build upon previous findings.
Original languageEnglish
Article number12
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 7 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Aerpio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Allergan; Bausch + Lomb; BrightFocus Foundation; Glaucoma Research Foundation; Glaukonix, Inc.; Glaukos Corp.; Nicox Visible Science; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; Santen, Inc.; and the Western Glaucoma Foundation for continued support of the trabecular meshwork study club, enabling 20 annual scientific gatherings of researchers dedicated to better understanding trabecular meshwork biology and facilitating the assembly of this position paper. The authors also thank BrightFocus Foundation for supporting the virtual trabecular meshwork study club meeting to enable continuous discussion among researchers throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The contents of this manuscript do not represent the views of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or the U.S. Government.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright 2022 The Authors


  • mouse model
  • conventional outflow
  • glaucoma
  • intraocular pressure
  • ocular hypertension
  • outflow facility
  • Glaucoma
  • Conventional outflow
  • Ocular hypertension
  • Mouse model
  • Outflow facility
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Ocular Hypertension/metabolism
  • Trabecular Meshwork/metabolism
  • Consensus
  • Animals
  • Intraocular Pressure/physiology
  • Aqueous Humor/physiology
  • Tonometry, Ocular
  • Mice
  • Glaucoma/metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal


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