Concept Analysis of Recovery in Mental Illness in Young Adulthood

Claire Odile McCauley, Hugh McKenna, Sinead Keeney, Derek F McLaughlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations.Aim:To conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts.Method:Rodgers’s (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery’s conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. Results:The derivation of the term recovery does not convey its’ identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatisation, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection.Conclusion/ Implications for Practice:The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self, through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users.
LanguageEnglish
Pages579-589
JournalJournal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Volume22
Issue number8
Early online date7 Jul 2015
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Jul 2015

Fingerprint

mental illness
adulthood
mental health
interpretation
normality
stigmatization
young adult
coping
nursing
reconstruction
illness
philosophy
time

Keywords

  • Concept analysis
  • mental health
  • mental illness
  • psychiatry
  • recovery
  • young adults

Cite this

@article{25908b31659245f4b0998c525ccce454,
title = "Concept Analysis of Recovery in Mental Illness in Young Adulthood",
abstract = "Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations.Aim:To conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts.Method:Rodgers’s (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery’s conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. Results:The derivation of the term recovery does not convey its’ identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatisation, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection.Conclusion/ Implications for Practice:The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self, through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users.",
keywords = "Concept analysis, mental health, mental illness, psychiatry, recovery, young adults",
author = "McCauley, {Claire Odile} and Hugh McKenna and Sinead Keeney and McLaughlin, {Derek F}",
note = "Reference text: References Adame, A.L., Knudson, R.M. 2007. Beyond the counter-narrative: Exploring alternative narratives of recovery from the psychiatric survivor movement. Narrative Inquiry, 17 (2), 157-178. Adeponle, A., Whitely, R., Kirmayer, L.J. 2013. Cultural contexts and construction of recovery. In: Rudnick, A.ed. Recovery of people with mental illness: Philosophical and related perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 109-133. Aston, V., Coffey, M. 2012. Recovery: what mental health nurses and service users say about the concept of recovery. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 257-263. Baldwin, M.A. 2008 Concept analysis as a method of inquiry. Nurse Researcher, 15 (2), 49-58. Barber, M.E. 2012. Recovery as the New Medical Model for Psychiatry. Psychiatric Services, 63(3), 277-279. Bellack, A.S., Drapalski, A. 2012. Issues and developments on the consumer recovery construct. World Psychiatry, 11, 156-160. Borg, M., Davidson, L. 2008. The nature of recovery as lived in everyday experience. Journal of Mental Health, 17(2), 129-140. Bradshaw, W., Armour, M.W., Roseborough, D. 2007. Finding a place in the world: the experience of recovery from severe mental illness. Qualitative Social Work, 6, 27-47. Braehler, C., Schwannauer, M. 2012. Recovering an emerging self: emerging reflective function in recovery from adolescent-onset psychosis. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85, 48-67. Brennaman, L., Lobo, M.L. 2011. Recovery from serious Mental Illness: A concept analysis. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 32, 654-663. Bunting, B.P., Murphy, S.D., O’Neill, S.M., Ferry. F.R. 2012. Lifetime prevalence of mental health disorders and delay in treatment following initial onset: evidence from the Northern Ireland Study in Health and Stress. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1727-1739. Bussema, K.E., Bussema, E.F. 2000. Is there a balm in Gilead? The implications of faith in coping with psychiatric disability. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24(2), 117-124 Bussema, E. F. Bussema, K. E. 2007.Gilead revisited: faith and recovery. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 30(4), 301-305. Campbell-Yeo, M., Latimer, M., Johnston, C. 2008. The empathetic response in nurses who treat pain: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61(6), 711-719. Chinn, P.L., Kramer, K.A. 1991. Theory and Nursing: A Systematic Approach. 3rd ed. St luis: Mosby. Coleman, R. 1999. Recovery: An Alien Concept. Gloucester: Handsell Publishing Collins English Dictionary, 2014. Recovery. London: Collins Dictionaries. Cowles, K.V.1996. Cultural perspectives of grief. An expanded concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23, 287-294. Cowles, K.V. 2000. Grief in a Cultural Context: Expanding concept analysis beyond the professional literature, In: Rodgers, B.L., Knafl, K.A. 2000. Concept Development in Nursing: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company, 119-127. Das, A. 2012. LGBTQ women and mental health “recovery”. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 35(6), 474-475. Davidson, L., Borg. M., Marin, I., Topor, A., Mezzina, R., Sells, D. 2005. Processes of recovery in serious mental illness: Findings from a multinational study. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabiliation, 8(3), 177-201. Davidson, L., O’Connell, M., Tondora J., Styron, T., m Kangas, K. 2006. The top ten concerns about recovery encountered in mental health system transformation. Psychiatric Services, 57(5), 640-645. Davidson, L., Roe, D. 2007. Recovery from versus recovery in serious mental illness: One strategy for lessening confusion plaguing recovery. Journal of Mental Health, 16(4), 459-470. Davis, J. 2012. The Importance of Suffering: The Value and Meaning of Emotional Discontent. Sussex: Routledge. Davis, J.2013. Cracked: Why Psychiatry is Doing More Harm than Good. London: Icon Books Ltd Deegan, P.E. 1988. Recovery: The lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11(4), 11-19. Deegan, P.E. 1995. Recovery as a journey of the heart. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 19(3), 91-97. Department of Work and Pensions, 2013. The Social Security (Recovery of Benefits Act) 1997. London. Department of Work and Pensions. Available at: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/publications/specialist-guides/technical-guidance/z1-recovery-of-benefits-and/1.-the-law/ Doroshow, D, B. 2007. Performing a cure for schizophrenia: Insulin coma therapy on the wards. Journal of the History of Medicine, 62(2), 213-243. Encarta World English Dictionary, 1999. Recovery. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Ellenger, V.C. 1986. Fighting back. New Society,19. Freeman, SM. Roy C (2005). Cognitive Behavior and the Roy Adaptation Model. In Ferrman Sm and Freeman A (eds) Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Nursing Practice. Chapter 1. Springer Publishing, New York. Hupcey, J.E., Morse, J.M., Lenz, E.R., Tason, M.C. 1996. Wilsonian Methods of Concept Analysis: A Critique. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 10(3), 185-210. Jones, G. 2008. Hope, help and recovery. Mental Health Practice, 11(8), 32-37. Kelly, M., Lamont, S., Brunero, S. 2010. An occupational perspective of the recovery journey in mental health. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73(3), 129-135. Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Meriknagas, K.R., Walter, E.E. 2005. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593-602. Kogstad, R.E., Ekeland, T.J., Hummelvoll, J.K. 2011. In defence of a humanistic approach to mental health care: Recovery processes investigated with the help of clients’ narratives on turning points and processes of gradual change. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 18, 479-486. Leamy, M., Bird, V., Le Boutillier., Williams, J., Slade, M. 2011. A conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental illness: systematic review and narrative synthesis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(6), 445-452. Lloyd, C., Waghorn, G. 2007a. The importance of vocation in recovery for young people with psychiatric disabilities, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(2), 50-51. Lloyd, C., Wong, S.R., Petchkovsky, L. 2007b. Art and recovery in mental health: a qualitative investigation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(5), 207-214. Lysaker, P., Buck, K. 2006. Moving toward recovery within clients’ personal narratives: Directions for a recovery-focused therapy. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 44(1), 29-35. Makin, S., Gask, L. 2011. “Getting back to normal”: the added value of an arts-based programme in promoting “recovery” for common but chronic mental health problems. Chronic Illness, 8(1), 64-75. Marrow, M., Weisser, J. 2012. Towards a social justice framework of mental health recovery. Studies in Social Justice, 6(1), 27-43. McCabe, M. 2009. Fatigue in children with long-term conditions: an evolutionary concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65 (8), 1735-1745. McInnes, S.C. 2001. The political is personal-or, why have a revolution (from within or without) when you can have soma? Feminist Review, 68, 160-166. McKenna, H.1997. Nursing Theory and Models. Oxon: Routledge. Merryman, M.B., Riegel, S.K. 2007. The recovery process and people with serious mental illness living in the community: An occupational therapy perspective. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 23(2), 51-73. Morse, J.M. 1995. Exploring the theoretical basis of nursing using advanced techniques of concept analysis. Advances in Nursing Science, 17(3), 31-46. National Mental Health Development Unit, 2011. Planning mental health services for young adults-improving transitions: A resource for Health and Social Care Commissioners. NMHDU. Available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/RT{\%}20planning-mental-health-services-for-young-adults--improving-transition.pdf [Accessed on 13th January 2014] Ng, R.M.K., Pearson, V., Lam, M., Chiu, C.P.Y., Chen, E.Y.H. 2008. What does recovery from Schizophrenia mean? Perceptions of long-term patients. International Journal of Psychiatry, 54 (2), 119-130. NHS Foundation Trust, 2010. Recovery is for all-Hope, Agency and Opportunity in Psychiatry. London: NHSFT. Available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/Recovery{\%}20is{\%}20for{\%}20all.pdf [Accessed on 11th March 2013] Ochocka, J., Nelson, G., Janzen, R. 2005. Moving forward: Negotiating self and external circumstances in recovery. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28 (4), 312-322. O’Hagan, M. 2004. Recovery in New Zealand: lessons for Australia. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 3, 1-3. Onken, S.J., Craig, C.M., Ridgeway, P., Ralph, R.O., Cook, J.A. 2007. An analysis of the definitions and elements of recovery: A review of the literature. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31(1), 9-22. Oxford University Press. 2013. Recovery. In: Oxford Dictionaries Online. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/recovery?q=recovery [Accessed on 1st October 2013] Patel.V., Fisher. A, J., Hetrick, S., McGorry, P. 2007. Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. Lancet, 369, 1302-1313. Pettie, D., Triolo, A.M. 1999. Illness as evolution: the search for identity and meaning in the recovery process. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 22(3), 255-262. Piat, M., Sabetti, J., Couture, A., Sylvestre, J., Provencher, H., Botschner, J., Stayner, D. 2009. What does recovery mean for me? Perspectives of Canadian mental health consumers. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 32 (3), 199-207. Pernice-Duca, F., Onaga, E. 2009. Examining the contribution of social network support to recovery process among clubhouse members. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabiliation, 12(1), 1-30. Resnick, S.G., Rosenheck, R.A., Lehman, A.F. 2004. An exploratory analysis of correlates of recovery. Psychiatric Services, 55(5), 540-547. Resnick, S.G., Fontana, A., Lehman, A.F., Rosenheck, R.A. 2005. An empirical conceptualisation of the recovery orientation. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 119-128. Roberts, G., Wolfson, P. 2004. The rediscovery of recovery: open to all. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 37-49. Rodgers, B.L. 1989. Concepts, analysis and the development of nursing knowledge: the evolutionary cycle. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14, 300-335. Rodgers, B.L., Cowles, K.V. 1997. A conceptual foundation for human suffering in nursing care and research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1048-1053. Rodgers, B.L., Knafl, K.A. 2000. Concept Development in Nursing: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. Slade, M. 2010. Mental illness and well-being: the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches. BMC Health Services Research, 10 (26). Song, Li-Yu., Shih, C.Y. 2009. Factors, process and outcomes of recovery from psychiatric disability: the unity model. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55(4), 348-360. Spaniol, L., Wewiorski, N.J., Gagne, C., Anthony, W.A. 2002. The process of recovery of schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 327-336. Stein, C.H., Mann, L.M. 2007. Ever onward: The personal strivings of young adults coping with serious mental illness and the hopes of their parents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 104-112. Schwartz-Barcott, D., Kim, H.S. 1986. A hybrid model for concept development. In: Chinn, P.L. (ed), Nursing research methodology: Issues and Implementations. Rockville, MDAspen, 91-101. Tew, J., Ramon, S., Slade, M., Bird, V., Melton, J., Le Boutillier, C. 2011. Social factors and recovery from mental health difficulties: A review of the evidence. British Journal of Social Work, 1-18. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012. Working Definition of Recovery Brochure: 10 Guiding Principles of Recovery. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Available at: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content//PEP12-RECDEF/PEP12-RECDEF.pdf [Accessed on 13th November 2013] Tofthagen, R., Fagerstrom, L.M. 2010. Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis-a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24, 21-31. Toulmin, S. 1972. Human Understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Van Gestel Timmermans, J.A.W.M., Brouwers, E.P.M., Bongers, I.L., Van Assen, M.A.L.M., Nieuwenhuizrn, Ch.van. 2012. Profile of individually defined recovery of pepol with major psychiatry problems, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(5), 521-531. Wallcraft, J., Bryant, J. 2003. The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health Policy Paper 2: The mental health service user movement in England. London: The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, p. 2-19. Walker, L.O., Avant, K.C. 1983. Strategies for Theory Construction in Nursing. Norwalk, CT: Appleton –Century-Crofts. Weinstein, J.ed., 2010. Mental Health, Service User Involvement and Recovery. London. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. World Health Organisation, 1993. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. World Health Organisation. Available at: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/bluebook.pdf World Health Organisation, 2013. 66th World Health Assembly: Comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Available at: http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA66/A66_R8-en.pdf [Accessed on 14th June 2013] World Health Organisation, 2014. Preventing Suicide: A global Imperative. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/131056/1/9789241564779_eng.pdf [Accessed on 13th January 2014]. Young, S.L., Ensing, D.S. 1999. Exploring recovery from the perspective of people with psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 22(3), 1-28. Zanarini, M.C., Frankenburg, F.R., Reich, D.B., Fitzmaurice, G. 2010. Time to attainment of recovery from borderline personality disorder and stability of recovery: A 10-year prospective follow up study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167 (6), 663-667.",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
day = "7",
doi = "10.1111/jpm.12245",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "579--589",
journal = "Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing",
issn = "1351-0126",
number = "8",

}

Concept Analysis of Recovery in Mental Illness in Young Adulthood. / McCauley, Claire Odile; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; McLaughlin, Derek F.

In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 22, No. 8, 07.07.2015, p. 579-589.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Concept Analysis of Recovery in Mental Illness in Young Adulthood

AU - McCauley, Claire Odile

AU - McKenna, Hugh

AU - Keeney, Sinead

AU - McLaughlin, Derek F

N1 - Reference text: References Adame, A.L., Knudson, R.M. 2007. Beyond the counter-narrative: Exploring alternative narratives of recovery from the psychiatric survivor movement. Narrative Inquiry, 17 (2), 157-178. Adeponle, A., Whitely, R., Kirmayer, L.J. 2013. Cultural contexts and construction of recovery. In: Rudnick, A.ed. Recovery of people with mental illness: Philosophical and related perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 109-133. Aston, V., Coffey, M. 2012. Recovery: what mental health nurses and service users say about the concept of recovery. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 257-263. Baldwin, M.A. 2008 Concept analysis as a method of inquiry. Nurse Researcher, 15 (2), 49-58. Barber, M.E. 2012. Recovery as the New Medical Model for Psychiatry. Psychiatric Services, 63(3), 277-279. Bellack, A.S., Drapalski, A. 2012. Issues and developments on the consumer recovery construct. World Psychiatry, 11, 156-160. Borg, M., Davidson, L. 2008. The nature of recovery as lived in everyday experience. Journal of Mental Health, 17(2), 129-140. Bradshaw, W., Armour, M.W., Roseborough, D. 2007. Finding a place in the world: the experience of recovery from severe mental illness. Qualitative Social Work, 6, 27-47. Braehler, C., Schwannauer, M. 2012. Recovering an emerging self: emerging reflective function in recovery from adolescent-onset psychosis. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85, 48-67. Brennaman, L., Lobo, M.L. 2011. Recovery from serious Mental Illness: A concept analysis. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 32, 654-663. Bunting, B.P., Murphy, S.D., O’Neill, S.M., Ferry. F.R. 2012. Lifetime prevalence of mental health disorders and delay in treatment following initial onset: evidence from the Northern Ireland Study in Health and Stress. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1727-1739. Bussema, K.E., Bussema, E.F. 2000. Is there a balm in Gilead? The implications of faith in coping with psychiatric disability. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24(2), 117-124 Bussema, E. F. Bussema, K. E. 2007.Gilead revisited: faith and recovery. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 30(4), 301-305. Campbell-Yeo, M., Latimer, M., Johnston, C. 2008. The empathetic response in nurses who treat pain: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61(6), 711-719. Chinn, P.L., Kramer, K.A. 1991. Theory and Nursing: A Systematic Approach. 3rd ed. St luis: Mosby. Coleman, R. 1999. Recovery: An Alien Concept. Gloucester: Handsell Publishing Collins English Dictionary, 2014. Recovery. London: Collins Dictionaries. Cowles, K.V.1996. Cultural perspectives of grief. An expanded concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23, 287-294. Cowles, K.V. 2000. Grief in a Cultural Context: Expanding concept analysis beyond the professional literature, In: Rodgers, B.L., Knafl, K.A. 2000. Concept Development in Nursing: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company, 119-127. Das, A. 2012. LGBTQ women and mental health “recovery”. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 35(6), 474-475. Davidson, L., Borg. M., Marin, I., Topor, A., Mezzina, R., Sells, D. 2005. Processes of recovery in serious mental illness: Findings from a multinational study. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabiliation, 8(3), 177-201. Davidson, L., O’Connell, M., Tondora J., Styron, T., m Kangas, K. 2006. The top ten concerns about recovery encountered in mental health system transformation. Psychiatric Services, 57(5), 640-645. Davidson, L., Roe, D. 2007. Recovery from versus recovery in serious mental illness: One strategy for lessening confusion plaguing recovery. Journal of Mental Health, 16(4), 459-470. Davis, J. 2012. The Importance of Suffering: The Value and Meaning of Emotional Discontent. Sussex: Routledge. Davis, J.2013. Cracked: Why Psychiatry is Doing More Harm than Good. London: Icon Books Ltd Deegan, P.E. 1988. Recovery: The lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11(4), 11-19. Deegan, P.E. 1995. Recovery as a journey of the heart. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 19(3), 91-97. Department of Work and Pensions, 2013. The Social Security (Recovery of Benefits Act) 1997. London. Department of Work and Pensions. Available at: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/publications/specialist-guides/technical-guidance/z1-recovery-of-benefits-and/1.-the-law/ Doroshow, D, B. 2007. Performing a cure for schizophrenia: Insulin coma therapy on the wards. Journal of the History of Medicine, 62(2), 213-243. Encarta World English Dictionary, 1999. Recovery. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Ellenger, V.C. 1986. Fighting back. New Society,19. Freeman, SM. Roy C (2005). Cognitive Behavior and the Roy Adaptation Model. In Ferrman Sm and Freeman A (eds) Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Nursing Practice. Chapter 1. Springer Publishing, New York. Hupcey, J.E., Morse, J.M., Lenz, E.R., Tason, M.C. 1996. Wilsonian Methods of Concept Analysis: A Critique. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 10(3), 185-210. Jones, G. 2008. Hope, help and recovery. Mental Health Practice, 11(8), 32-37. Kelly, M., Lamont, S., Brunero, S. 2010. An occupational perspective of the recovery journey in mental health. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73(3), 129-135. Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Meriknagas, K.R., Walter, E.E. 2005. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593-602. Kogstad, R.E., Ekeland, T.J., Hummelvoll, J.K. 2011. In defence of a humanistic approach to mental health care: Recovery processes investigated with the help of clients’ narratives on turning points and processes of gradual change. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 18, 479-486. Leamy, M., Bird, V., Le Boutillier., Williams, J., Slade, M. 2011. A conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental illness: systematic review and narrative synthesis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(6), 445-452. Lloyd, C., Waghorn, G. 2007a. The importance of vocation in recovery for young people with psychiatric disabilities, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(2), 50-51. Lloyd, C., Wong, S.R., Petchkovsky, L. 2007b. Art and recovery in mental health: a qualitative investigation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(5), 207-214. Lysaker, P., Buck, K. 2006. Moving toward recovery within clients’ personal narratives: Directions for a recovery-focused therapy. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 44(1), 29-35. Makin, S., Gask, L. 2011. “Getting back to normal”: the added value of an arts-based programme in promoting “recovery” for common but chronic mental health problems. Chronic Illness, 8(1), 64-75. Marrow, M., Weisser, J. 2012. Towards a social justice framework of mental health recovery. Studies in Social Justice, 6(1), 27-43. McCabe, M. 2009. Fatigue in children with long-term conditions: an evolutionary concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65 (8), 1735-1745. McInnes, S.C. 2001. The political is personal-or, why have a revolution (from within or without) when you can have soma? Feminist Review, 68, 160-166. McKenna, H.1997. Nursing Theory and Models. Oxon: Routledge. Merryman, M.B., Riegel, S.K. 2007. The recovery process and people with serious mental illness living in the community: An occupational therapy perspective. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 23(2), 51-73. Morse, J.M. 1995. Exploring the theoretical basis of nursing using advanced techniques of concept analysis. Advances in Nursing Science, 17(3), 31-46. National Mental Health Development Unit, 2011. Planning mental health services for young adults-improving transitions: A resource for Health and Social Care Commissioners. NMHDU. Available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/RT%20planning-mental-health-services-for-young-adults--improving-transition.pdf [Accessed on 13th January 2014] Ng, R.M.K., Pearson, V., Lam, M., Chiu, C.P.Y., Chen, E.Y.H. 2008. What does recovery from Schizophrenia mean? Perceptions of long-term patients. International Journal of Psychiatry, 54 (2), 119-130. NHS Foundation Trust, 2010. Recovery is for all-Hope, Agency and Opportunity in Psychiatry. London: NHSFT. Available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/Recovery%20is%20for%20all.pdf [Accessed on 11th March 2013] Ochocka, J., Nelson, G., Janzen, R. 2005. Moving forward: Negotiating self and external circumstances in recovery. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28 (4), 312-322. O’Hagan, M. 2004. Recovery in New Zealand: lessons for Australia. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 3, 1-3. Onken, S.J., Craig, C.M., Ridgeway, P., Ralph, R.O., Cook, J.A. 2007. An analysis of the definitions and elements of recovery: A review of the literature. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31(1), 9-22. Oxford University Press. 2013. Recovery. In: Oxford Dictionaries Online. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/recovery?q=recovery [Accessed on 1st October 2013] Patel.V., Fisher. A, J., Hetrick, S., McGorry, P. 2007. Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. Lancet, 369, 1302-1313. Pettie, D., Triolo, A.M. 1999. Illness as evolution: the search for identity and meaning in the recovery process. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 22(3), 255-262. Piat, M., Sabetti, J., Couture, A., Sylvestre, J., Provencher, H., Botschner, J., Stayner, D. 2009. What does recovery mean for me? Perspectives of Canadian mental health consumers. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 32 (3), 199-207. Pernice-Duca, F., Onaga, E. 2009. Examining the contribution of social network support to recovery process among clubhouse members. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabiliation, 12(1), 1-30. Resnick, S.G., Rosenheck, R.A., Lehman, A.F. 2004. An exploratory analysis of correlates of recovery. Psychiatric Services, 55(5), 540-547. Resnick, S.G., Fontana, A., Lehman, A.F., Rosenheck, R.A. 2005. An empirical conceptualisation of the recovery orientation. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 119-128. Roberts, G., Wolfson, P. 2004. The rediscovery of recovery: open to all. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 37-49. Rodgers, B.L. 1989. Concepts, analysis and the development of nursing knowledge: the evolutionary cycle. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14, 300-335. Rodgers, B.L., Cowles, K.V. 1997. A conceptual foundation for human suffering in nursing care and research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1048-1053. Rodgers, B.L., Knafl, K.A. 2000. Concept Development in Nursing: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. Slade, M. 2010. Mental illness and well-being: the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches. BMC Health Services Research, 10 (26). Song, Li-Yu., Shih, C.Y. 2009. Factors, process and outcomes of recovery from psychiatric disability: the unity model. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55(4), 348-360. Spaniol, L., Wewiorski, N.J., Gagne, C., Anthony, W.A. 2002. The process of recovery of schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 327-336. Stein, C.H., Mann, L.M. 2007. Ever onward: The personal strivings of young adults coping with serious mental illness and the hopes of their parents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 104-112. Schwartz-Barcott, D., Kim, H.S. 1986. A hybrid model for concept development. In: Chinn, P.L. (ed), Nursing research methodology: Issues and Implementations. Rockville, MDAspen, 91-101. Tew, J., Ramon, S., Slade, M., Bird, V., Melton, J., Le Boutillier, C. 2011. Social factors and recovery from mental health difficulties: A review of the evidence. British Journal of Social Work, 1-18. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012. Working Definition of Recovery Brochure: 10 Guiding Principles of Recovery. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Available at: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content//PEP12-RECDEF/PEP12-RECDEF.pdf [Accessed on 13th November 2013] Tofthagen, R., Fagerstrom, L.M. 2010. Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis-a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24, 21-31. Toulmin, S. 1972. Human Understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Van Gestel Timmermans, J.A.W.M., Brouwers, E.P.M., Bongers, I.L., Van Assen, M.A.L.M., Nieuwenhuizrn, Ch.van. 2012. Profile of individually defined recovery of pepol with major psychiatry problems, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(5), 521-531. Wallcraft, J., Bryant, J. 2003. The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health Policy Paper 2: The mental health service user movement in England. London: The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, p. 2-19. Walker, L.O., Avant, K.C. 1983. Strategies for Theory Construction in Nursing. Norwalk, CT: Appleton –Century-Crofts. Weinstein, J.ed., 2010. Mental Health, Service User Involvement and Recovery. London. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. World Health Organisation, 1993. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. World Health Organisation. Available at: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/bluebook.pdf World Health Organisation, 2013. 66th World Health Assembly: Comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Available at: http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA66/A66_R8-en.pdf [Accessed on 14th June 2013] World Health Organisation, 2014. Preventing Suicide: A global Imperative. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/131056/1/9789241564779_eng.pdf [Accessed on 13th January 2014]. Young, S.L., Ensing, D.S. 1999. Exploring recovery from the perspective of people with psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 22(3), 1-28. Zanarini, M.C., Frankenburg, F.R., Reich, D.B., Fitzmaurice, G. 2010. Time to attainment of recovery from borderline personality disorder and stability of recovery: A 10-year prospective follow up study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167 (6), 663-667.

PY - 2015/7/7

Y1 - 2015/7/7

N2 - Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations.Aim:To conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts.Method:Rodgers’s (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery’s conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. Results:The derivation of the term recovery does not convey its’ identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatisation, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection.Conclusion/ Implications for Practice:The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self, through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users.

AB - Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations.Aim:To conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts.Method:Rodgers’s (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery’s conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. Results:The derivation of the term recovery does not convey its’ identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatisation, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection.Conclusion/ Implications for Practice:The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self, through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users.

KW - Concept analysis

KW - mental health

KW - mental illness

KW - psychiatry

KW - recovery

KW - young adults

U2 - 10.1111/jpm.12245

DO - 10.1111/jpm.12245

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 579

EP - 589

JO - Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing

T2 - Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing

JF - Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing

SN - 1351-0126

IS - 8

ER -