Rathlin Island, off the north coast of Ireland, has a history of settlement and seafaring from the Late Mesolithic period to the present day. The maritime Sites and Monuments Record (SMR) for Rathlin indicates many wrecking incidents. In 1999, a reconnaissance side-scan sonar survey confirmed the presence of 46 targets of possible archaeological potential around Rathlin Island. Thirteen of these anomalies were positively identified as shipwrecks. Of the remaining 33 targets, nine were dived on in order to ground-truth the geophysical data. A successful and rapid methodology of ground-truthing side-scan sonar data for archaeological purposes was developed. The results confirmed the presence of a Danforth Anchor at one site, while the remaining anomalies were identified as geological features. The results from the side-scan survey and diver-truthing exercise enhanced the existing maritime SMR. (C) 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.