Comparison of Properties and Bead Geometry in MIG and CMT Single Layer Samples for WAAM Applications

Harley Stinson, Richard Ward, Justin Quinn, Cormac McGarrigle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
107 Downloads (Pure)


The process of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) utilizes arc welding technology to fabricate metallic components by depositing material in a selective layered fashion. Several welding processes exist that can achieve this layered deposition strategy. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) derived processes are commonly favored for their high deposition rates (1–4 kg/h) and minimal torch reorientation required during deposition. A range of GMAW processes are available; all of which have different material transfer modes and thermal energy input ranges and the resultant metallic structures formed from these processes can vary in their mechanical properties and morphology. This work will investigate single-layer deposition and vary the process parameters and process mode to observe responses in mechanical properties, bead geometry and deposition rate. The process modes selected for this study were GMAW derived process of Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Cold Metal Transfer (CMT). Characterization of parameter sets revealed relationships between torch travel speeds, wire feed speeds and the specimen properties and proportions. Differences were observed in the cross-sectional bead geometry and deposition rates when comparing MIG and CMT samples though the influence of process mode on mechanical properties was less significant compared to process parameter selection.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1530
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
Issue number10
Early online date26 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Department for Economy.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Additive manufacturing
  • CMT
  • Deposition
  • Geometry
  • MIG
  • Mechanical properties
  • WAAM
  • Welding


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