Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations

Gyoengyver Tomory, Bernadett Csanyi, Erika Bogacsi-Szabo, Tibor Kalmar, Agnes Czibula, Aranka Csosz, Katalin Priskin, Balazs Mende, Peter Lango, Stephen Downes, Istvan Rasko

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    Abstract

    The Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic family, but Hungarian speakers have been living in Central Europe for more than 1000 years, surrounded by speakers of unrelated Indo-European languages. In order to study the continuity in maternal lineage between ancient and modern Hungarian populations, polymorphisms in the HVSI and protein coding regions of mitochondrial DNA sequences of 27 ancient samples (10th-11th centuries), 101 modern Hungarian, and 76 modern Hungarian-speaking Sekler samples from Transylvania were analyzed. The data were compared with sequences derived from 57 European and Asian populations, including Finno-Ugric populations, and statistical analyses were performed to investigate their genetic relationships. Only 2 of 27 ancient Hungarian samples are unambiguously Asian: the rest belong to one of the western Eurasian haplogroups, but some Asian affinities, and the genetic effect of populations who came into contact with ancient Hungarians during their migrations are seen. Strong differences appear when the ancient Hungarian samples are analyzed according to apparent social status, as judged by grave goods. Commoners show a predominance of mtDNA haplotypes and haplogroups (H, R, T), common in west Eurasia, while high-status individuals, presumably conquering Hungarians, show a more heterogeneous haplogroup distribution, with haplogroups (NIa, X) which are present at very low frequencies in modern worldwide populations and are absent in recent Hungarian and Sekler populations. Modern Hungarian-speaking populations seem to be specifically European. Our findings demonstrate that significant genetic differences exist between the ancient and recent Hungarian-speaking populations, and no genetic continuity is seen.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages354-368
    JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
    Volume134
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2007

    Fingerprint

    Asia
    Finno-Ugric
    Mitochondrial DNA
    Continuity
    Hungarian Language
    Central Europe
    Polymorphism
    Grave Goods
    Transylvania
    Eurasia
    Protein
    11th Century
    Indo-European Languages
    Commoners
    Affinity
    Social Status

    Cite this

    Tomory, G., Csanyi, B., Bogacsi-Szabo, E., Kalmar, T., Czibula, A., Csosz, A., ... Rasko, I. (2007). Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 134(3), 354-368. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20677
    Tomory, Gyoengyver ; Csanyi, Bernadett ; Bogacsi-Szabo, Erika ; Kalmar, Tibor ; Czibula, Agnes ; Csosz, Aranka ; Priskin, Katalin ; Mende, Balazs ; Lango, Peter ; Downes, Stephen ; Rasko, Istvan. / Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations. In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2007 ; Vol. 134, No. 3. pp. 354-368.
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    abstract = "The Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic family, but Hungarian speakers have been living in Central Europe for more than 1000 years, surrounded by speakers of unrelated Indo-European languages. In order to study the continuity in maternal lineage between ancient and modern Hungarian populations, polymorphisms in the HVSI and protein coding regions of mitochondrial DNA sequences of 27 ancient samples (10th-11th centuries), 101 modern Hungarian, and 76 modern Hungarian-speaking Sekler samples from Transylvania were analyzed. The data were compared with sequences derived from 57 European and Asian populations, including Finno-Ugric populations, and statistical analyses were performed to investigate their genetic relationships. Only 2 of 27 ancient Hungarian samples are unambiguously Asian: the rest belong to one of the western Eurasian haplogroups, but some Asian affinities, and the genetic effect of populations who came into contact with ancient Hungarians during their migrations are seen. Strong differences appear when the ancient Hungarian samples are analyzed according to apparent social status, as judged by grave goods. Commoners show a predominance of mtDNA haplotypes and haplogroups (H, R, T), common in west Eurasia, while high-status individuals, presumably conquering Hungarians, show a more heterogeneous haplogroup distribution, with haplogroups (NIa, X) which are present at very low frequencies in modern worldwide populations and are absent in recent Hungarian and Sekler populations. Modern Hungarian-speaking populations seem to be specifically European. Our findings demonstrate that significant genetic differences exist between the ancient and recent Hungarian-speaking populations, and no genetic continuity is seen.",
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    Tomory, G, Csanyi, B, Bogacsi-Szabo, E, Kalmar, T, Czibula, A, Csosz, A, Priskin, K, Mende, B, Lango, P, Downes, S & Rasko, I 2007, 'Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations', American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 354-368. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20677

    Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations. / Tomory, Gyoengyver; Csanyi, Bernadett; Bogacsi-Szabo, Erika; Kalmar, Tibor; Czibula, Agnes; Csosz, Aranka; Priskin, Katalin; Mende, Balazs; Lango, Peter; Downes, Stephen; Rasko, Istvan.

    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 134, No. 3, 11.2007, p. 354-368.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Tomory, Gyoengyver

    AU - Csanyi, Bernadett

    AU - Bogacsi-Szabo, Erika

    AU - Kalmar, Tibor

    AU - Czibula, Agnes

    AU - Csosz, Aranka

    AU - Priskin, Katalin

    AU - Mende, Balazs

    AU - Lango, Peter

    AU - Downes, Stephen

    AU - Rasko, Istvan

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