Comparison of in vivo and in vitro digestion on polyphenol composition in lingonberries: potential impact on colonic health.

Emma Brown, Sonja Nitecki, Gemma Pereira-Caro, Gordon Mc Dougall, Derek Stewart, Ian Rowland, Alan Crozier, Chris IR Gill

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    58 Citations (Scopus)


    The composition of polyphenols in ileal fluid samples obtained from an ileostomy subject after lingonberry intake was compared with lingonberry extracts obtained after simulated in vitro digestion (IVDL) and subsequent faecal fermentation (IVFL). HPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis confirmed similar patterns of lingonberry (poly)phenolic metabolism after the in vivo and in vitro digestion, with reduced recovery of anthocyanins and a similar pattern of recovery for proanthocyanidins observed for both methods of digestion. On the other hand, the IVFL sample contained none of the original (poly)phenolic components but was enriched in simple aromatic components. Digested and fermented extracts exhibited significant (P <0.05) anti-genotoxic (Comet assay), anti-mutagenic (Mutation Frequency assay), and anti-invasive (Matrigel Invasion assay) effects in human cell culture models of colorectal cancer at physiologically-relevant doses (0-50 μg/mL gallic acid equivalents). The ileal fluid induced significant anti-genotoxic activity (P <0.05), but at a higher concentration (200 μg/mL gallic acid equivalents) than the IVDL. Despite extensive structural modification following digestion and fermentation, lingonberry extracts retained their bioactivity in vitro. This reinforces the need for studies to consider the impact of digestion when investigating bioactivity of dietary phytochemicals.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)611-623
    Number of pages13
    Issue number6
    Early online date30 Oct 2014
    Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Dec 2014


    • Polyphenols
    • in vitro digestion
    • ileal fluid
    • diet
    • gut health
    • lingonberries
    • DNA damage
    • in vivo digestion


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